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Skeletal System. Skeletal System Overview. A newborn baby has 305 bones. As a human develops to the age of 25, some bones fuse together to obtain maximum strength. The average human skeleton has 206 bones. Largest bones – Thigh (Femur) and the Upper Arm (Humerus).

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skeletal system overview
Skeletal System Overview
  • A newborn baby has 305 bones.
  • As a human develops to the age of 25, some bones fuse together to obtain maximum strength.
  • The average human skeleton has 206 bones.
  • Largest bones – Thigh (Femur) and the Upper Arm (Humerus).
  • Smallest bones – Middle Ear (Maleus, Incus and Stapes).
  • All bones are living organs, which contain living (cells) and non-living (mineral) materials.
functions of bones
Functions of Bones
  • Bones have 5 major functions:

Support –Provide support for tendons and ligaments and the framework for body shape.

Protection – The cranium protects your brain, the ribs and sternum protect your internal organs such as heart and lungs.

Movement – Bones work with muscles to produce movement. Muscles are attached to the skeleton and work by contracting (shortening) and pulling on bones.

Storage – Bones are the site for storage and release of excess minerals. These are released as the body requires.

Blood production – Some bones (ribs, vertebrae, humerus and femur) contain red bone marrow. This makes red cells, white cells and platelets for blood.

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Cranium

Mandible

Scapula

Clavicle

Sternum

Humerus

Ribs

Vertebrae

Radius

Pelvis

Ulna

Carpals

Metacarpals

Phalanges

Femur

Patella

Fibula

Tibia

Tarsals

Metatarsals

Phalanges

bone classifications long bones
Bone Classifications – Long Bones
  • Long bones consist of a long shaft covered by hard bone around a hollow centre which contains yellow marrow.
  • The two ends contain spongy bone and red marrow.
  • These bones are light but very strong, and are major weight-bearing bones of the body.
bone classifications short bones
Bone Classifications – Short Bones
  • Short bones are chunky, compact bones that are strong and reinforced by thickening of the bone tissue.
  • They contain spongy bone and allow a variety of movements at joints.
bone classifications flat bones
Bone Classifications – Flat Bones
  • Flat bones are made up of two strong layers of compact bone, joined by a layer of spongy bone.
  • These bones give protection to organs beneath them and allow for large areas of muscle attachment.
bone classifications irregular bones
Bone Classifications – Irregular Bones
  • Irregular bones are made up of a thin layer of compact bone containing a mass of spongy bone.
  • Irregular bones are reinforced where extra strength is needed.