Legends. Lesson 1. Learning Objective: Investigate the key features of legends. Investigate the popularity of legends.
Features of Myths. Can you remember them? Use the picture clues to create a memory list.
Features of Legends: Features of Myths: • Story about People • Sometimes mention Gods/ Goddesses • Possible basis of truth • Features heroic characters and brave deeds • Battles and fights are likely • Distinction made between honour and dishonour (good/ evil) • A story or place that has achieved legendary fame. • Story about Gods/ Goddesses • Includes magical elements and powers • Features heroic characters • Features danger / revenge and violent acts • Set in ancient times • Uses powerful imagery • May include strange creatures.
So what exactly is a Legend? • a. An unverified (not proven) story handed down from earlier times, especially one popularly believed to be historical. • b. A body or collection of such stories. • c. One that inspires legends or achieves legendary fame. Legends are stories about people who may have once lived, but who have, over the years, grown larger than life! Through the ages the stories that have been woven around those heroes have glorified them and their deeds to such an extent that they now seem almost like gods.
The Arthurian Legends. King Arthur in a tapestry dated about 1385: • At the end of the 5th century, Britain came under the leadership of a man named Arthur. • He was a real man but very little is known about him. • There are lots of legends told about Arthur and his followers, known as the 'Knights of the Round Table'. Unfortunately, most of these are just made up stories. • He may have been a brilliant commander in charge of the British army, or a High-King. • Historians argue a lot about whether Arthur really existed. • Most historians think that Arthur did exist because he is referred to in books written not long after his death. This is supposed to have been in the early 6th century.
King Arthur has been written about: • Gildas - 570 AD • The Venerable Bede - 731 AD • Nennius - 800 AD • Geoffrey of Monmouth - 1130 AD • Chretien de Troyes - 1185 AD • Gerald of Wales - 1145 AD • Sir Thomas Malory 1416 • John Leland 1545 • Alfred, Lord Tennyson 1892 • T.H.White 1958 King Arthur has been painted:
Modern depictions of the King Arthur Legend: 1953 Disney 1963 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1zj_8h22Fv4 1981 BBC 2008- 2012 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RaBmWqQkKYE from 1 minute in. 2004
The Sword in the Stone When King Pellinore arrives for Kay’s knighting, he brings important news: King UtherPendragon has died without an heir. A sword, which has been stuck all the way through an iron anvil and into a stone underneath it, has appeared in front of a church in London. On the sword are inscribed the words, “Whoso Pulleth Out This Sword of this Stone and Anvil, is Rightwise King Born of All England.” A tournament has been proclaimed for New Year’s Day so that men from all over England can come to try to pull out the sword. Kay convinces Sir Ector, Sir Grummore, and Sir Pellinore that they should go to the tournament.
On the day of the tournament, Kay is so excited that he makes the group get up early and go to the jousting area an hour before the jousts begin. When he arrives, Kay realizes that he has left his sword at the inn, so he haughtily sends the Wart to go back and get it. The inn is closed, however, when the Wart (Arthur) gets there. In front of a nearby church, he sees a sword stuck in a stone. He makes two unsuccessful attempts to pull out the sword. There is a sudden stirring in the churchyard, and the Wart sees a congregation of his old animal friends. With their encouragement, the Wart pulls the sword from the stone with ease. The Wart brings the sword back to Kay.
Kay recognizes it as the sword that will determine the next king of England and falsely claims that he was the one who pulled it out of the stone. When Sir Ector presses Kay, however, Kay admits that the Wart pulled it out. To the Wart’s horror, his beloved foster father and brother both kneel before him, and he tearfully wishes he had never found the sword. The Wart is accepted as king after repeatedly putting the sword into the anvil and drawing it back out again. He receives gifts from all over England. One day, Merlyn appears magically before him. He tells the Wart that the Wart’s father was UtherPendragon and that Merlyn was the one who first brought the Wart to Sir Ector’s castle as an infant. Merlyn tells the Wart that from now on he will be known as King Arthur.
Lesson 2 Learning Objective: Compare features of myths and legends. Consider what you know, and would like to know about the legend of Robin Hood. Game: Myth or Legend? Write whether you think the story is a myth or a legend.
Theseus and the Minotaur: • Myth because... • Features a heroic character (Theseus) • Features violent acts • Set in ancient times • Mentions a strange creature • Story about a God (Theseus is a half- God).
Pandora’s Box: • Myth because... • Story includes Gods (Zeus and his two sons) • Includes magical elements and powers • Explains an important happening in nature • Set in ancient times.
The Lost City of Atlantis: • Legend because... • Possible basis of truth • Mention of Gods- Poseidon • Story about people (the Atlanteans) • A story/ place that has achieved legendary fame.
Robin Hood: • Legend because... • Story about people • Possible basis of truth • Features heroic characters • Fights likely • Distinction between honour and dishonour (good and evil) • A story that has achieved legendary fame
The Legend of Robin Hood • The legend of Robin Hood is over 600 years old. • In 1377, William Langland makes a throwaway reference to the "rymes of Robyn hood". • In 1427, there's a reference to pay 20d (pence) to actors in a Robin Hood play. • By 1600, there are more than 130 references to performances of the Robin Hood legend. • By 1600, there are over two hundred references to Robin Hood. • Officials called real outlaws "Robin Hoods". • Was Robin Hood a real person? For centuries people have asked that. Robin of Loxley, and the Earl of Huntingdon are just two examples of real people and outlaws that may have inspired or been inspired by Robin Hood and the Merry Men.
Sherwood Forest and Nottingham Castle. Disney http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cx_4C1cyUZA BBC http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zau3kdiWe6Q
Lesson 3 Learning Objective: To identify where tension is built in the text and the impact on the reader Disney Robin Hood Video 9: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XSXM3Zg0eBo&list=PLAF99F7EC51A88F09 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XSgUffCZZD0 How do I feel? During each of this video clip, write down how you feel. It may be: happy, worried, scared, excited, tense etc...
Two men crept ever closer. Clouds shifted. Moonlight seeped into the dark night. The figures paused. “How on earth…?” Will Scarlett’s whisper was swallowed by the blackness as the battlements of Nottingham Castle were revealed. “We’ll never get in there, Robin.” No reply came so Will turned. He could see Robin’s furrowed brow as his eyes scanned the castle defences. It was six hours since Maid Marian had disappeared. Their clothes still reeked from the smoke of the hamlet the Sheriff’s men had torched and where Marion had been giving food to the poor.
Robin’s face, taut with anger and determination, was reply enough. To their right was the drawbridge that led to the gatehouse. The sharpened teeth of the portcullis warned against entering the very mouth of the castle. The outer curtain walls reared above them, arrow slits within the crenulated stone. Chain mail rattled as they walked the battlements, their shadows gliding across the keep behind them. PortcullisHeavy grill door to protect caste entrances Crenulated: indented square notch battlements.
With that Robin stepped out onto the highway. He hoisted his heavy sack onto his broad shoulders, nestling next to his bow and quiver. The smell of stale ale spread from Ye Olde Trip to Jerusalem together with the sound of the last singing drunk. Robin ducked swiftly though the inn’s courtyard and to the stables behind. Will strode after him, shaking his head. Wherever he was going, he was sure to be going in to trouble. Will saw Robin flitting to the back of the stables, where an outcrop of rock jutted out below the castle. As he came up closer to him he stepped behind a huge tree trunk and began feeling along the sandstone wall. “Help me, Will.” “What am I looking for?”
“ There should be an outline of a King’s crown chiselled into the rock. King Edward used it to get into the castle to murder Mortimer, long ago. They never knew how he got in.” “So how did you know…?” “My father served King Edward, the hole that is behind here leads right up into the castle, he was with him the night Mortimer was killed.” Will’s fingers slid across the rock, rough to the touch and cold as bone. Indentations caused him to stop and feel closer but then he would move on, exploring, exploring, exploring. He moved Robin’s sack to one side and felt along the ground.
“It’s not on the wall at all but here, Robin, on the floor.” He placed Robin’s palm onto a carved crown. As soon as Robin felt it he stood up and kicked hard. Once. Silence. More silence. Will dared not breathe. Glancing down he saw that inside the crown was a heavy, iron ring. They both grasped it and heaved. The earth beneath them moved aside and revealed a gaping hole, Mortimer’s hole. We’ve no light, thought Will. No shields, no hauberks … no idea where we are going to come out…but then neither have they… The passage led down on sandstone steps but quickly it begin to rise up, winding their path into the castle. Robin and Will slipped stealthily into the heart of danger. At last their way was blocked by an iron gate that rose above them. "See that, Will. The light?” Will nodded.
“That shines down onto the dungeon where I reckon they’ll have Marion. Some fool seems to have left the gate ajar. Come on.” Crouching as they eased their way up the steps, they prepared every muscle to spring should there be a trap. Robin glanced through the gaps, his eyes slowly finding the iron grille that covered the dungeon hole.
They slid through the open gate and peered down into the dungeon. Eyes adjusted to the dark, cavernous pit. “There!” Will could see the cloak of a woman huddled and curled around her knees but with eyes of fire. Clink! Robin reeled around in time to evade a towering blow from a gleaming sword. “Trapped!” roared a voice that Robin knew only too well, “like rats at the cheese…”
Name: Robin Hood Trapped! Visualising the story through a heart rate graph. 150 bpm Heart rate of the reader (beats per minute) 60 bpm Main sections of the story Now that we have decided on the main sections of our story, think about how dramatic they are and plot an X on your graph ( = a high, dramatic point, with lots of action, and = a low, calm point in the story. This might be when there is lots of description, instead of action.) Then join up your points so that we see how the story develops for readers.
Main sections: • Will Scarlett and Robin Hood creeping up to the castle. • The men talk of Mortimer. Robin steps onto the highway and into the courtyard. Reaching the stable walls. • Robin says there should be a crown on the wall. Will finds the crown on the floor and Robin Hood kicks it hard. When the men pull on the ring they find a hole. • No light or protection in the dungeons. Passage leads down sandstone steps. They find a metal gate ajar. • They slide through the open gate and peer down into the dungeons. Cloaked woman? The men are TRAPPED by the Sheriff.
Lesson 4. Learning Objective: To identify suspense techniques in a text. To compose and manipulate complex sentences. Suspense techniques: 1. Character’s reactions. 2. Varying sentence lengths for effect . 3. Flashback or detail. 4. Repetition for impact. 5. Powerful similes or metaphors . 6. Something hidden from view. 7. Ellipsis...
Main clause: A clausecontains a subject and verb and is independent (can be a sentence in itself) Robin crept silently up the stairs. Subordinate clause: A subordinate clause adds further description or information, but does not make sense without the main clause. Conjunction: A conjunction links two clauses together. because he did not want to alert the Sherriff’s men.
Put these clauses and conjunctions in the correct box. Then use them to make complex sentences. Hint: some sentences have 3 or more clauses. Main clause: as but and when Will hadn’t dared to breathe, Since Robin had kicked the wall loudly, the risk of getting caught was too great. the men guarding her cell went to inform the Sherriff. Maid Marian was hiding in the corner Conjunction: she heard a loud knock, Subordinate clause:
Lesson 5. Learning Objective: Explore thoughts, feelings and dialogue of key characters in the story. Game: Complex Sentences. Use the 2 subjects and the conjunction to create the most interesting, bizarre sentence you can.
Hot Seating Questions • How did you feel Robin when Marian disappeared? • Why did you kidnap Marian? • How did you feel Will when you found the iron ring to get into the castle? • What were you doing when you were kidnapped Marian? • Will, how do you feel now that you are also trapped in the dungeon? • Sherriff, what are your plans for Marian, Robin and Will Scarlett now? • Robin, how do you plan to escape? These are a few examples, try and be as creative as you can!
Lesson 6 Learning Objective: To write a stream of consciousness in the role of a chosen character at a key point in the narrative. Stream of consciousness examples: Beauty and the Beast: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nwZEcdBMLLU Robin Williams discovers Flubber http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HJT2QOpnYb8 stop at 2.30ish. Good example of thinking out loud- not logical. But he is kind of talking to Flubber?
Lesson 7 Learning Objective: To show an understanding of chosen character through role play monologues. To suggest ways of improving writing.
Lesson 8 Learning Objective: Explore and practise auditory storytelling techniques Begin to explore the importance of the storyteller/ narrator. Can you pick out the features of legends from the list below? • Story about Gods/ Goddesses • Features heroic characters and brave deeds • Includes magical elements and powers • Features heroic characters • Features danger / revenge and violent acts • Set in ancient times • Story about People • Sometimes mention Gods/ Goddesses • Distinction made between honour and dishonour (good/ evil) • Uses powerful imagery • May include strange creatures. • A story or place that has achieved legendary fame. • It has a MORAL – the lesson to be learned. • Possible basis of truth • Battles and fights are likely • Animals as characters
Gather friends for I have a story to tell you. A story of good and a story of evil, a story of the brave and a story of the wicked. A story that begins many many moons ago when knights ruled the land and the castles ruled the very air that people breathed. It begins below one such castle owned by an evil sheriff, the sheriff of Nottingham, a man with a heart of stone and a temper as fierce as fire. The night, dark as it was, was lit by a moon and there below the towering battlements, two men stood wondering how they were going to breech the defences of one of the most feared places in Britain.
Why did they want to place themselves in such danger? What reason would you have to risk certain death if caught? Come closer my friends and I will bring you closer to a village not far from Nottingham. A village where a woman lived. Maid Marian. A beautiful village that stands no more, and a beautiful woman who was now locked in the darkest dungeon by the darkest villain in christendom. The sheriff had captured her. The greatest treasure of his enemy Robin Hood and it was Robin who was waiting beneath the castle walls with his friend Will Scarlett. If I described to you the defences would you dare to enter, rampart so high no man could go over, buttresses so strong no man could go through, arrow slits murder holes such as no attacker could survive unless of course you knew a secret, which Robin did. As a mist swirled Will and Robin passed below the old Trip to Jerusalem, the oldest in England and a place where many of you have spend a drunken night I’ll bet.
Anyway at its back behind the stables Robin led Will to an outcrop of rock. There he began a determined search while Will worried and kept watch. Fingers scrabbled rock on rock, stone on stone searching for the mark of a crown, King Edwards crown. ‘Here,’ whispered Will. Robin struck it and a large iron ring shone through together they heaved and pulled, gasping with the effort until at last there below them, forbidding and dark lay hole, Mortimer’s hole. But the story of Mortimer’s hole is for another time, another feast. It led through winding passages deep into the heart of the castle keep. Finally their way was blocked by a gate which, intriguingly, had been left open. Was this a trap? Would something or somebody… Battle-ready they spied through the gate to see and there below them the grill dropped in the dungeon dark. Listening, no sound, searching, a blue cloak, a huddled figure with fiery eyes of defiance and it was then in the moment that they almost tasted the victory of treasure found, that the clink of the sheriff’s sword told them otherwise. He was behind them.