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無線射頻識別 論文報告. 授課教授 : 黃秋煌 教授 報告人 : 徐琨閔. Outline. 1. A Generic Model for NFC-based Mobile Commerce 2 . Business Process Analysis of NFC-based Services. A Generic Model for NFC-based Mobile Commerce Hsu-Chen Cheng and Jen- Wel Chen and Tain -Yow Chi and Pin-Hung Chen. Introduction.

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授課教授:黃秋煌 教授


  • 1. A Generic Model for NFC-based Mobile Commerce
  • 2. Business Process Analysis of NFC-based Services

A Generic Model for NFC-based Mobile Commerce

Hsu-Chen Cheng and Jen-Wel Chen and Tain-Yow Chi and Pin-Hung Chen

  • There are three use cases for NFC:
    • read/write mode
    • card emulation mode
    • and peer-to-peer mode

With computing, storage and communication ability, NFC-enabled

device acts as a critical enabler for mobile commerce

  • The model characterizes the issues and technologies involved in the processes, including service initialization, ordering, payment, shipping/collection, loyaltymanagement, and customer service.
initialization phase
Initialization phase
  • Before providing NFC-based service, constructing an NFC mobile commerce environment is needed. There are four critical components:
    • back-end services
      • responsible for all information exchange during the commerce process.
    • Generic terminal service(GTA)
      • The application is responsible for retrieving information from back-end service
    • Function tags
      • Function tags trigger the GTA to communicate with back-end service or activate the connection .
      • Four types of tag are defined in the NMC Model:
        • First-time Tag (FT), Product Tag (PT), Coupon Tag (CT), and Service Tag (ST).
    • NFC-enabled handsets
      • Before using the NFC-based service, GTA has to be loaded in the NFC-enable handset in advance
ordering phase
Ordering phase
  • After initialization, the customer can start to use NFC-enabled handset to download the catalog and place the order
  • Merchant's catalog

1:tapping the handset on the PT.

2:The handset will retrieve the content of the PT and launches the corresponding GTA automatically

3:GTA will download the corresponding catalog from the back-end server according to the content stored in the PT

4:After that, GTA can display the product information such as descriptions, images, videos, and product dependent options.

shipping collection phase
Shipping/Collection phase
  • customers can choose how they receive their products or services.
    • For physical products, they can choose a place to ship or to collect, such like their home address or exit number of shopping mall.
    • For virtual products, such as on line music or video game, it should be transferred virtually to a particular storage device by email or short message.
loyalty management phase
Loyalty management phase
  • Loyalty program is designed to attract a customer to purchase again.
    • Receiving coupons Customers can receive coupons by tapping a CT which accounts for downloading a coupon.
    • Coupon sharing mechanism With NFC-enable handsets, customers can share their coupons with others more easily.
service phase
Service phase
  • If customers require assistance for any problem, they can just tap the ST by the handset. The service request will be addressed, and the corresponding service can be delivered as soon as possible.
  • E-Wallet

1:a consumer order and determines to pay by e-wallet,

2:the application will activate the connection and transfer the order information to the back-end service by 3G orGPRS.

3:the back-end authentication will request the application to check the e-wallet and auto debit if the balance is sufficient.

  • Credit Card

1:the customer decides to pay by credit card

2:The GTA will upload the order information to back-end service by3G or GPRS, and write the order number into SE.

3:the order information will be recognized by external readers.

shipping collection
  • the bill is paid, the consumer will be asked to choose Dine-in or take-away.
  • Dine-in

1:customer chooses to dine-in, he/she can use the handset to tap the seat tag which is embedded on the table.

2:GTA will transfer the seat number to back-end service

3:waiter can use this information to deliver the service.

  • Take-away

1:After receiving the customer's order, the back-end service will transfer the order information to the screen/printer in the kitchen.

2:For take-away, consumers just wait for the SMS which will inform them where to take out their meal.

loyalty service
  • Loyalty
    • If the consumer completes the ordering process, the back-end service will send a restaurant coupon to the handset directly.
    • Or customers may just tap the handset on CT to download the coupon for a special discount.
    • The customer may share coupons with others, so that more than one customer benefits from the coupon discount.
  • Service
    • Consumers simply tap these tags with their handsets and then select the service, their selection will send to the backend service.
  • we propose a generic model for NFC-based mobile commerce.
  • we implement the service in a normal restaurant in order to verify the feasibility and flexibility of the model.
  • According to the experience, service providers can built up a feasible NFC-based solution to satisfy several mobile commerce scenarios
the dual approach of stolpan
  • StoLPaN (Store Logistics and Payment with NFC)aims to establish a secure, interoperable operating environment for third party applications delivered into Secure Elements (SEs) in an NFC-enabled mobile handset.
  • the following deliverables have been defined for the project: a set of commercial and technical frameworks for the delivery, use, update and removal of secure NFC-enabled applications
  • The dual approach to develop the technical and commercial environment simultaneously will also help to harmonize the interests of diverse stakeholders and to promote the deployment of NFC-enabled mobile applications in many diverse markets
nfc technology and the basic challenges of the nfc ecosystem
  • NFC is a standard-based, short-range wireless communication technology at 13.56 MHz radio frequency that enables simple and safe two-way interactions among electronic devices.
  • One of the key directions of development is to define an environment that supports NFC services portfolio management.
  • when defining the NFC-based services and applications, only a part of the problems are technology related, and even those have business process implications usually.
functional scheme of nfc based mobile services 1 2
  • User,
    • is the person who selects the application/service and can initiate the request for post issuance and personalization.
  • the SE Issuer
    • has control over the SE. Control means the right to decide how the SE’s storage capacity is used.
  • the Service Provider.
    • is the actor who wishes to deploy or manage a service application or data element on the SE
diverse interests and possible conflicts between major stakeholders 1 2
  • The MNOs(Mobile Network Operators)
    • have the natural advantage that they control the only generally available download facility. Moreover, they also have the space on their SIM cards, which could also be utilized for storing third party secure applications. Controlling the download and hosting the applications as well - two services that can be charged for
  • service providers
    • would prefer a solution where they can independently arrange for the application download, and where the application would be hosted in a neutral space in the handset. This could be a second chip, which is either embedded in the device or an SD card that can be used in various devices, or under certain operating and security conditions even a SIM card
diverse interests and possible conflicts between major stakeholders 2 2
  • whose interests must be harmonized, otherwise either conflicting, not interoperable solutions will gain market acceptance, or the technology itself will not be able to proliferate
technological development and business process analysis 1 2
  • The first major research track of the StoLPan project was to establish an open platform for the delivery, use, update and removal of secure NFC-enabled applications on mobile devices.
  • The main functions of the technical platform are
    • technical transparency – single platform;
    • remote communication, information provision;
    • dynamic management of multi-application SEs;
    • application management;
    • application interoperability.
technological development and business process analysis 2 2
  • At the same time, following the basic concept of simultaneous development and cooperating with service providers, MNOs and other key players in the value chain, the StoLPaN consortium identifies and analyses the applications and use cases that the open NFC platform will enable.
  • The process involves:
    • Evaluating how NFC affects the existing value chain for the issuance of payment cards, tickets and other services;
    • Identifying the business requirements and flow of funds within and among the key players;
    • Verifying the commercial dependencies and distribution of risk between key stakeholders.
the transparent technology platform and common methodology
The transparent technology platform and common methodology
  • From the technical aspect
    • hiding diversity of handsets and applications;
    • specification of general minimum requirements;
    • introducing standards;
    • simpler development, applications distribution and applications management.
  • From the commercial aspect
    • revenue generation for key stake holders;
    • testing new use cases;
    • performing user studies;
    • validating existing solutions;
    • introducing new value-added functions;
    • identification of issues that deteriorate economics of services;
    • identification of issues that hinder penetration of the technology, or individual services.
trial applications of nfc ervices 1 2
  • A few examples of recent trial applications from three continents:
    • Mobile payment and transport ticketing in Istanbul and London;
    • Mobile access to Manchester City stadium;
    • Transport ticketing at the German Railway;
    • Secure mobile payment in retail shops and parking in Caen, France;
    • Transport ticketing and mobile payment in San Francisco;
    • Public transport, mobile payment in restaurants, cinemas and retail shops, Xiamen, China.
conclusions and further development directions
  • NFC-enabled mobile services have proved is that technology and standardization have reached the level where commercial launch preparations can begin
  • One of the bottlenecks of market penetration is the limited number of NFC-enabled handsets.
  • Another important issue is that the current trial operations usually feature a limited number of services, without the possibility of removal or insertion of any new or unused service
Q & A

End Report

Thank You