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TAXONOMY. Linnaean Taxonomy. Carolus Linn aeus organized plants and animals into 7 hierarchical categories. Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species. Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Hominidae Homo Homo sapiens. Linnaean Taxonomy. Scientific (species) name Genus name

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linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean Taxonomy
  • Carolus Linnaeus organized plants and animals into 7 hierarchical categories.
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species

Animalia

Chordata

Mammalia

Primates

Hominidae

Homo

Homo sapiens

linnaean taxonomy1
Linnaean Taxonomy
  • Scientific (species) name
    • Genus name
    • Specific epithet (species identifier)
    • Written in Latin
      • Dead, but universal scholarly language
    • Italicized or underlined
    • Ex: Canis familiaris

Mycobacterium leprae

systematic taxonomy
Systematic Taxonomy

“Our classifications will come to be genealogies”

  • Using…
    • Morphology, embryology, paleontology, biochemistry
phylogenetic tree tetrapods

Reptiles

Amphibians

Phylogenetic Tree - Tetrapods
  • Groups - Amphibians, Birds, Mammals, Reptiles
  • Primitive Characteristics
    • Vertebrae, four limbs, heterotrophy, bilateral symmetry

Birds

Other Tetrapods

Mammals

Feathers

Fur

Endothermy

Amniotic Egg

Ancestral Tetrapod

phylogenetic tree domains carl woese u of illinois
Phylogenetic Tree - Domains(Carl Woese, U of Illinois)
  • Three domains of living things
    • Reorganization: Archaea more similar to Eukarya based on molecular data

Eukarya

Protista, Fungi

Plantae, Animalia

Bacteria

Archaea

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes

Membrane and ribosome structure

Progenote

archaea archaebacteria
Archaea (archaebacteria)
  • Prokaryotic
  • Unicellular
  • Cell walls of various materials
  • Heterotrophic and autotrophic
  • Mostly extreme habitats
bacteria eubacteria
Bacteria (eubacteria)
  • Prokaryotic
  • Unicellular
  • Cell walls of peptidoglycan
  • Heterotrophic and autotrophic
protista
Protista
  • All eukaryotes not defined as plants, fungi, or animals
  • Algae and protozoans
fungi
Fungi
  • Eukaryotic
  • Uni- and multicellular
  • Cell walls of chitin
  • Heterotrophic
fungi3
Fungi

Spread by growth…

…and spore dispersal

plantae
Plantae
  • Eukaryotic
  • Multicellular
  • Cell walls of cellulose
  • Autotrophic
animalia
Animalia
  • Eukaryotic
  • Multicellular
  • No cell walls
  • Heterotrophic