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AS level PE. Respiratory system. Discus mechanics of breathing Inspiration Expiration Air is distributed to the lungs by way of the Trachea Primary bronchi (Also secondary/tertiary) Bronchioles alveoli. Respiratory system – 3 main processes. Pulmonary respiration

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as level pe

AS level PE

Respiratory system

slide2
Discus mechanics of breathing
  • Inspiration
  • Expiration
  • Air is distributed to the lungs by way of the
    • Trachea
    • Primary bronchi (Also secondary/tertiary)
    • Bronchioles
    • alveoli
respiratory system 3 main processes
Respiratory system – 3 main processes
  • Pulmonary respiration
    • The breathing of air into and out of the lungs
  • External respiration
    • Exchange of O2 and CO2 between the lungs and the blood
  • Internal respiration
    • Exchange of O2 and CO2 between the blood and muscle tissues
respiratory volumes at rest
RESPIRATORY VOLUMES AT REST
  • Tidal volume
    • Amount of air inhaled and exhaled with each breath (approx 500ml)
  • Frequency (f)
    • Rate of breathing
  • Minute Ventilation
    • VE = TV X f
  • Residual volume
    • Volume of air remaining in the lungs (1200ml)
respiratory volumes at rest cont d
RESPIRATORY VOLUMES AT REST (Cont’d)
  • Inspiratory reserve vol
  • Expiratory reserve volume
lung capacities
LUNG CAPACITIES
  • Inspiratory capacity = IRV + TV
  • Expiratory capacity = ERV + TV
  • Vital capacity
    • Maximal vol of air that can be expired after maximal inspiration
  • Total lung capacity
    • Maximal volume of air contained in the lungs after a maximal inspiration
    • TLC = TV + IRV + ERV + RV
gaseous exchange
Gaseous Exchange
  • Gaseous exchange refers to the exchange of gases, namely O2 and CO2 and relies on a process called diffusion
  • What is Diffusion??
  • PP – partial pressure of a gas is the pressure it exerts within a mixture of gases
    • Gases always move from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure
slide9
Inspired air – PO2 -159 , PCO2 -0.3
    • Trachea – PO2 – 149, PCO2 – 0.3
    • Pulmonary veins – PO2-100, PCO2 -40
    • Heart
    • Body tissues – PO2 – 40, PCO2 - 46
slide10
MYOGLOBIN – RED PIGMENT IN MUSCLES THAT STORES O2 AND TRANSPORTS O2 TO THE MITOCHONDRIA
  • 02 – muscle cells (hb – myoglobin)

-- by product – CO2

CO2 travels in blood as carbonic acid (70%),

Carbaminohaemoglobin(20%) & 7% plasma

slide11
TASK
  • IN GROUPS OF 3-4 YOU HAVE 5-10MINS TO DISCUSS AND PRESENT THE MECHANICS OF RESPIRATION DURING EXERCISE
    • MECHANICS
    • LUNG VOLUME CHANGES DURING EXERCISE
      • SKIPPING ROPES
      • CONES & PAPER
mechanics of respiration during exercise
MECHANICS OF RESPIRATION DURING EXERCISE
  • What muscles are involved?
  • Inspiration – SCOM(sternocleidomastoid), scalenes & pec minor
  • Expiration – internal intercostals & rectus abdominals / obliques
  • See p.96
  • Discuss the ventilatory response to light, moderate and heavy exercise
lung volume exercise
LUNG VOLUME & EXERCISE
  • Tidal volume – 500ml 3-4litres
  • Frequency – 12-15 40-60
  • VE – 6-7.5l 120-180l
  • IRV – 3100ml  decreases
  • ERV – 1200ml  slightly decreases
  • Vital capacity – 4800ml  slight decrease
  • Residual volume – 1200ml  slight increase
  • Total lung capacity – 6000ml  slight decrease
exercise changes to gaseous exchange
EXERCISE CHANGES TO GASEOUS EXCHANGE

BOTH EXTERNAL & INTERNAL RESPIRATION INCREASE DURING EXERCISE IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE SUPPLY OF O2 TO THE WORKING MUSCLES