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New Tourism English Sunny
Unit One • Introduction of tourism
1. Definition of Tourism: • In 1991, the World Tourism Organization (WTO) and the Government of Canada held an important conference in Ottawa, Canada, which was attended by delegates from 90 countries as well as international organization. In this conference, tourism was defined as “the activities of a person traveling to a place outside his or her usual environment for less than a special period of time whose main purpose of travel is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the space visited.”
Tourism is the sum of phenomena and relationships of society, culture and economy, which arises from the non-residential travel or temporary stay by the travelers. • 旅游是在一定的社会经济条件下产生的一种社会经济现象,是人们不从事赚钱的活动而以游览.消遣等为主要目的所进行非定居的旅行而引起的一切现象和关系的总和.
2. Reasons for Travel • 1.Throughout history, most travel was undertaken because of necessity--- not for pleasure. People traveled to satisfy basic needs for survival. • 2. some traveled just for fun. • 3. some people were motivated to travel just out of curiosity.
4. During the Middle Ages, people went on pilgrimages to holy cities and shrines. • 5. travel for the purpose of conducting trade--- business travel--- has been going on for centuries. • 6. Notions about cures for ailments of the body have also influenced travel. • 7. Destinations of historic and cultural significance have attracted travelers through the ages.
3. Types of Tourism • The classifications are generally made by regions,tourist resources, social features, tourist purposes etc
According to the traveling regions • there are international travel (tourist travel between two or more countries), internal travel (tourist travel within the same country of which the tourist is a resident. This is also called domestic tourism), around-the-world travel and interregional or interstate travel etc.
In the form of organizing a tour or social features • there are group tourism, family tour and independent tour etc.
In terms of distance • there are long distance travel and jaunt(短途旅游) or excursion (a trip away from a person‘s usual place of residence for less than twenty-four hours l although weekend trips are often classified as excursions).
By the motivation and purpose • there are business tour, sightseeing tour, health tour. ethnic tour, religion tour, recreational(休养) tour so on and so forth.
Besides, there are package tour and non-package tour according to price-setting standard; and mountain tour, seaside tour, hot spring tour. based on the tourist resources.
However, some special types of tourism are also put forward as the further development of visitor attractions and research of tourist markets have been done on.
First, there are many terms for tourism in the countryside, including rural tourism, agricultural tourism, ecotourism and green tourism.
Rural tourism( 农家乐) • This alternative to traditional mass tourism allows travelers to visit areas outside of urban areas. Nowadays, an increasing number of farm businesses are opening their doors to visitors. Farm tours, farmbased Bed and Breakfast operations, farm vacations, seasonal festivals, and other forms of rural tourism are attracting growing numbers of local, regional and even international visitors.
Ecotourism(生态游) • One of the most promising(有前途的) types of tourism is ecotourism. Undoubtedly tourism has great positive impacts on economy, society, culture and environment, at the same time, the environmentally erosive(侵蚀性) qualities of tourism have become a subject of worldwide concern. Thus, concepts such as ecotourism, sustainable development and green tourism etc. have been proposed.
The definition of ecotourism • In 1992, the Ecotourism Society defined ecotourism as "purposeful travel to natural areas to understand the culture and natural history of the environment, taking care not to alter the integrity of the ecosystem, while producing economic opportunities that make the conservation of natural resources beneficial to local people. "
The advantages to develop ecotourism • In contrast to mass tourism, ecotourism permits tourists to seek educational self-fulfillment in the form of travel, and tries to transform that activity into something that benefits the greater good--specifically, to fund environmental preservation, rural development, and even cultural survival.
Ecotourism also promotes feelings among tourists that they are part of the solution when, in fact, the very act of flying a thousand miles or more to their destination(目的地) consumes(消耗) resources and pollutes the environment. Now ecotourism is “widely promoted as a win-win(双赢) development strategy for underdeveloped rural areas"
Apart from terms for tourism in the countryside, there are also some terms for tourism in the city, such as urban tourism, MICE, theme parks tourism and so on .
Urban tourism • Tourism in large cities is called as urban tourism, upon which the development of national tourism is largely based. Visitors are increasingly attracted to towns and cities.
China is fortunate in that most incoming visitors have as their motivation the desire to see the country’s heritage, much of which is found in the urban areas. Eg. Beijing, Xi’an, Nanjing etc.
Theme parks • It is not surprising that purpose-built theme parks are the major attractions for tourism, receiving the greatest number of visitors. Themes parks are oriented(导向) to particular themes, such as history, adventure, unusual geographic places, fantasy, cartoon stories, legends and fairy tales, or a combination of these in one park, and offer simulated experiences, shows, thrill rides, shopping, and a variety of restaurants and snack bars in a clean and controlled environment. Best known of the theme parks are Disneyland in Anaheim, California and Disney World in Orlando, Florida.
Besides some types of tourism like culture tourism, online tourism, incentive tourism(奖励游) etc. are still popular both at home and abroad.
Culture tourism • Culture tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors in the travel industry. It is also the travel industry's term describing travel and visitation activities directed at an area's arts, heritage, recreational and natural resources. China is a country with long history and brilliant culture, culture tourism is another hot topic in the nation's tourist industry.
On line tourism • Tourism today involves the cooperation of Interrelated Business Organizations that direct tourists to every area of the world, managing all the components of the journey. In recent years, the rapid evolution of the electronic commerce through the Internet brings the great opportunities to tourism industry. Online tourism is a big revolution of the tourism industry.
By the booming of the e-commerce several years ago, the online tourism web sites have the features to provide the online reservation and ticketing systems which enable the consumers to book a ticket on a flight / train, rent a car, book a hotel and so on through the internet. Compared with the traditional tourism services, online tourism is more flexible, convenient and more concerned for the consumers.
4. Tourism in China • As early as two thousand years ago China hosted commercial travelers from many parts of Asia, even from Ancient Rome, via the Old Silk Road. As a new rising industry, tourism in China first developed at the turn of centuries. After World War II, in the 50s, tourism in most countries got a fairly quick development.
1) The history of Chinese tourism • A. In pre-liberation: very little organized tourism existed. • B. In the early days of the new China, the country was too occupied with basic development to pay attention to this specialized industry.
C. In 1954, the founding of the China International Travel Service (CITS) in Beijing. This is the beginning of China’s international tourism industry. • D. In 1957, China Travel Service (CTS) was founded, which was based on the former Beijing Overseas Chinese Travel Service. It provides services for overseas Chinese, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan compatriots and foreign citizens of Chinese origin.
E. In 1964, the China Travel and Tourism Administration was established. • F. With the outbreak of the “Cultural revolution” (1966---1976), tourism came to a standstill. • F. The 1976 reopening to the world, the tourism industry in China really began to grow rapidly.
2) The presence of Chinese tourism industry • China’s tourism industry now has formed an enterprise of a respectable（有名望的）magnitude(巨大的). • １．Over 6029 hotels in 2000 are open to the foreign visitors. • ２．Restoration work on ancient buildings and historic sites.
３．A great number of tourists attractions and places of interest have been improved and developed. • ４．New tourist zones have been designated（指定) • ５．Various tourist programs have been enriched in content.
６． A great deal of energy and money has been devoted to improving tourist facilities and transport for tourists. • ７．China has been taken from the 41st place among the world’s tourist destinations in 1999 to the 5th place today.
5. Reasons why the world tourism industry had grown tremendously • 1. steady economic development and a calm political climate in most of the world • 2. improvements in modern means of transportation • 3. a rise in personal income and in leisure time • 4. a change in people’s attitude and behavior
6. Reasons why we need to develop the Tourism Industry • Tourism has become a leading part of China’s tertiary industry（第三产业）. • A. Developing tourism industry can increase the income of the foreign currency, • B. Developing tourism industry can increase the opportunities of employment,
C. Developing tourism industry can withdraw a great deal of currency from circulation(循环). 回笼货币 • D. Developing tourism industry can promote the opening to the world and strengthen the crosswise economic union.（横向经济联合） • E. At the same time, it can strengthen patriotic（爱国主义的） education, and give impetus (促进) to urban（城市） construction, to the protection of cultural and historic relics, and to beautifying the environment.
7. Tasks we are confronted with • to upgrade（提升） service quality, namely to better management engineering and controllability. • 1. to improve the political and ideological work • 2. to further deepen business reform
3. to strengthen the in-service training of interpreters, guides, managerial and service staff • 4. to cultivate（培养） the moral sense of profession • 5. to improve service skill and technique • 6. to better service attitude.