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Mohandas Karamchad Gandhi. By Matt Evans. Early Life/Background Info. Born in Porbandar, India Born on October 2, 1869 Father was Diwan (Prime Minister) of Porbander Porbander was a small state in the Kathiawar Agency of British India. Early Life/Background Continued. Mother was Putlibai

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early life background info
Early Life/Background Info
  • Born in Porbandar, India
  • Born on October 2, 1869
  • Father was Diwan (Prime Minister) of Porbander
  • Porbander was a small state in the Kathiawar Agency of British India
early life background continued
Early Life/Background Continued
  • Mother was Putlibai
  • Grew up with the Jain traditions
  • Jainism is an ancient religion of India
  • Traditions were vegetarianism, religious tolerance, fasting, and compassion
life as a teenager
Life As a Teenager
  • Married Kasturbai Makhanji at 13 years old
  • This was an arranged child marriage
  • Had 4 sons with Kasturbai Makhanji
  • Average student in school
  • Went to England in 1888 to study law at University of London
  • Also learned to become a barrister
  • Barristers are special kinds of lawyers that have more direct contact with clients
journey to south africa
Journey to South Africa
  • Traveled to South Africa in 1893
  • Treated very unfairly by European people
  • Thrown off train and beaten by driver
  • Gandhi began to question Indian status in the British Empire
south africa continued
South Africa Continued
  • Stayed in Africa longer to assist Indians in opposing a bill that did not let them vote
  • Helped found Natal Indian Congress in 1894
  • This was a political force
south africa continued1
South Africa Continued
  • Adopted satyagraha
  • This means “devotion to the truth”
  • Told Indians to defy the law and suffer through punishments instead of resisting
  • Satyagraha began to mature
accusations of racism
Accusations of Racism
  • In one report, Gandhi said that Kaffirs are dirty and troublesome
  • He also said the white race should be the predominant race in South Africa
  • This lead people to the idea that he was racist
the zulu war of 1906
The Zulu War of 1906
  • Britain declared war on the Zulus in 1906
  • Zulus killed two British officers after introduction of poll tax
  • Gandhi encouraged Britain to allow Indians to be recruited
  • Indians allowed to treat wounded soldiers
role in world war i
Role in World War I
  • Invited by Viceroy to War Conference in Delhi in 1918
  • Invited to show support to Empire and to recruit Indians for war
  • Attempted to recruit combatants
  • “Appeal for Enlistment” in 1918
  • Gandhi told Viceroy’s secretary that he will not hurt anybody
role in world war i continued
Role in World War I Continued
  • “To bring about such a state of things we should have the ability to defend ourselves, that is, the ability to bear arms and to use them…If we want to learn the use of arms with the greatest possible dispatch, it is our duty to enlist ourselves in the army.” (Gandhi: “Appeal for Enlistment”)
  • Gandhi began to clean up villages in Khedi
  • Villages were dirty and full of crime and alcoholism
  • Built schools and hospitals and encouraged people to work together to stop conflicts and crimes
kheda continued
Kheda Continued
  • Arrested by police on charges of creating unrest
  • People protested outside jail until Gandhi’s release
  • Led protests against landlords signed an agreement
  • It granted farmers more control over their farming and cancelled collections until they were more wealthy
  • Gandhi named “Father of the nation”
resistance against britain
Resistance Against Britain
  • Used non-cooperation and non-violence against Britain
  • Spoke about how violence was evil and was not the solution to anything
  • Sought to complete self government and control Indian government institutions
  • Turned into Swaraj, or individual and spiritual political independence
resistance against britain cont
Resistance Against Britain Cont.
  • Urged Indians to wear khadi instead of British clothes
  • Urged people to boycott education and law
  • Also urged people to forsake British titles and honors
  • These ideas achieved widespread success and increased peoples’ will to resist
resistance against britain cont1
Resistance Against Britain Cont.
  • Gandhi called off campaign in 1922 out of fear of violence erupting
  • Gandhi was arrested on March 10, 1922 and tried for sedition
  • Sentenced to six years in jail
  • Released for an appendicitis operation after 2 years
resistance against britain cont2
Resistance Against Britain Cont.
  • Indian National Congress split into two factions without Gandhi
  • One faction favored participation in the legislatures
  • Other faction opposed this
  • Hindu and Muslim cooperation for non-violence breaking down
the salt march
The Salt March
  • Spent a lot of time trying to resolve the conflicts between the Swaraj and Indian National Congress
  • British boycotted commission by Indian political parties
  • Gandhi threatened British with another non-cooperation campaign
the salt march continued
The Salt March Continued
  • The British did not respond to the threat
  • January 26, 1930 was celebrated as India’s Independence Day
  • Gandhi started new Satyagraha against the tax on salt in 1930
  • Marched with thousands of other Indians for 241 miles from Ahmedabad to Dandi to make salt himself
the salt march continued1
The Salt March Continued
  • Britain responded by imprisoning over 60,000 people
  • Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed in 1931
  • This freed all prisoners in return for suspension of civil disobedience movement
  • Gandhi invited to attend Round Table Conference in London to represent Indian National Congress
after the salt march
After the Salt March
  • Gandhi arrested and British failed to isolate him from his followers
  • Government granted untouchables separate electorates under constitution
  • Gandhi protested and forced government to come up with a better arrangement
  • Gandhi started a new campaign to help the untouchables lead better lives
after the salt march continued
After the Salt March Continued
  • In 1934, Gandhi was almost assassinated three times
  • Gandhi resigned from party membership because his popularity would stifle the membership
  • Also, this helped Gandhi avoid being a target for Raj propaganda
return to politics in 1936
Return to Politics in 1936
  • Wanted a total focus on winning independence
  • Allowed Congress to adopt socialism
  • Had an argument with President Subhas Bose
  • Bose did not commit to democracy and had little faith in non-violence
  • Bose left Congress after Gandhi announced of Bose’s abandonment of his principals to the All-India leaders
world war ii
World War II
  • Gandhi declared that India could not be a party to a war fought for democratic freedom when India had none
  • Gandhi started to write a resolution called “Quit India” for Britain
  • Many people believed not helping Britain was unethical
  • Gandhi would not support the war unless India was granted independence
arrest during world war ii
Arrest During World War II
  • Arrested in Bombay on August 9, 1942
  • Suffered two painful losses in prison
  • His secretary, Mahadev Desai died of a heart attack
  • Wife, Kasturba died after being imprisoned for 18 months
  • Gandhi released at the end of the war for failing health due to a malaria attack
  • Britain indicated that India would be given power
india s freedom and partition
India’s Freedom and Partition
  • Gandhi was opposed to partition
  • This opposition caused Hindus and Muslims to criticize Gandhi
  • Gandhi was condemned for undermining Muslim rights
  • He was accused of turning a blind eye to atrocities against Hindus and for the creation of Pakistan
  • Some people even said he caused India to divide
freedom and partition continued
Freedom and Partition Continued
  • Gandhi opposed any partition that planned to divide India
  • Congress approved the partition plan to prevent a Hindu-Muslim war
  • Gandhi was eventually forced to let the partition be approved to avoid war
struggle in pakistan
Struggle in Pakistan
  • Worked with Hindus and Muslims to keep peace
  • Gandhi saddened when all Muslims forced to Pakistan and Muslims and Hindus could not agree with each other
  • Gandhi protested that money should be donated to restore homes in Pakistan
  • After much debate, the Government agreed to pay Pakistan since Gandhi refused to change his mind
  • Gandhi was shot by Nathuram Godse on January 30, 1948 during his nightly walk
  • Godse and his conspirator were convicted and executed on November 15, 1949
  • Gandhi’s ashes were poured into urns and sent across India for memorial services
  • Gandhi’s memorial is located at Raj Ghat in Pune, India
literary works
Literary Works
  • Edited newspapers including the Harijan, Hindi, Indian Opinion, and Young India
  • Wrote autobiography: “An Autobiography of My Experiments With Truth”
  • A political pamphlet: “Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule”
  • Also paraphrased John Ruskin’s Unto This Last
  • Gandhi’s complete works were published in the 1960’s and revised in 2000
people influenced by gandhi
People Influenced by Gandhi
  • Martin Luther King, Jr. and James Lawson were influenced by Gandhi
  • Albert Einstein exchanged written letters with Gandhi in 1931
  • Former vice-president Al Gore was influenced by Gandhi
  • Also, current president Barack Obama says Gandhi is a major influence on his life
holidays and awards
Holidays and Awards
  • Gandhi Jayanta is celebrated every October 2 in India
  • On January 30, schools and many countries celebrate the School Day of Non-violence and Peace
  • Man of the Year in 1930
  • Runner-up to Einstein as person of the century
  • Mahatma Gandhi Peace Prize awarded to distinguished social workers
  • Nominated five times for Nobel Peace Prize
gandhi in modern culture
Gandhi in Modern Culture
  • “Gandhi” was a film in 1982
  • Gandhi is the main theme in the 2006 Bollywood film, “Lage Raho Munna Bhai”
  • The 2007 film, “Gandhi, My Father” tells about the relationship between Gandhi and Harilal
  • The 1996 film, “The Making of the Mahatma” documents Gandhi’s twenty-one years in South Africa
movie clip works cited
Movie Clip/Works Cited