DIABETES: Type 2 and You? RET Corps Member: Steve Koteff Workshop Attendee Group Members: Falak Almiladi, Patricia Dymowski, Winnie Koo, Mable Mc Miller, Rachel Love, Marge Rockwood, IIT Research Mentor: Ali Cinar This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. EEC-0502174. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
Overview of Module • Topics Covered: Diabetes Type II • Student Involvement: • Computers internet • Web search • IIT Website • Experiment with sugar and respiration • Lecture • Discussion
Analysis of Pretest/Posttest Results • Q 15 Would you explain diabetes to your parents? Why or why not? Y 15 N 1 • Q 16 Would you change your eating habits? Why or why not? Y 13 N 3 • Q 17 Would you join a sports team or exercise program? * Y 8 N 2 • * Six students are presently exercising.
Design Activity • Feed cereal with high sugar content to active yeast and describe what happens. • Measure the volume of the gas released by the yeast • Redo the experiment with two additions • Give dollar values to the yeast and cereal • 1.Design the cheapest way to produce a given amount of gas • 2.Try to achieve a gas output equal to an amount given by the teacher
Design Activity • Extended lab experiment for two consecutive days • Use test tubes and balloons instead of zip lock bags • Use a balance or measuring spoon instead of measuring cup • Use a stop watch to monitor time
Inquiry Description: A research of web sites to introduce themselves to Diabetes Lessons Learned: • Have students make predictions • Have students do a Web quest • Have students comprise a list of important vocabulary words relevant to diabetes • Have students share and discuss ideas
Ethics Brief Description: Read article to students for group discussion. Lessons Learned: • Teachers and students will behave in a manner that demonstrates honesty, integrity, and fairness. • Teachers and students will accept responsibility and accountability for personal competence. • Teachers and students should respect self and others by causing no harm, physically or verbally.
Improvements/Recommendations Engineering Design: Needs to have more hands-on activities. Scientific Inquiry: Explore questions related to the subject in depth. Professional Ethics: Students need a review in the program Character Counts and review the rules about sharing individual work. Materials: Review safety, lab precautions, and procedures. Use test tubes and balloons instead of zip lock bags.
Modifications Elementary (K-4): Instead of a web search, have students make posters after class discussion on diabetes. Have students do some exercises. Have students reproduce the food pyramid. Middle (5-8): Module was targeted for the middle school population. High School (9-12): Incorporate “Movement Across Membrane” experiment. Have students make probability or statistical predictions. Invite an expert in the field of diabetes to lecture and answer questions; and lead group discussion. Invite a diabetic patient to discuss the health problems associated with diabetes.
History of Diabetes 1552 B.C. • Earliest known record of diabetes mentioned on 3rd Dynasty Egyptian papyrus by physician Hesy-Ra; mentions polyuria (frequent urination) as a symptom. 1st Century A.D. • Diabetes described by Arateus as 'the melting down of flesh and limbs into urine. Up to 11th Century • Diabetes commonly diagnosed by 'water tasters,' who drank the urine of those suspected of having diabetes; the urine of people with diabetes was thought to be sweet-tasting. Early 19th Century • First chemical tests developed to indicate and measure the presence of sugar in the urine. 1900-1915 • 'Fad' diabetes diets include: the 'oat-cure' (in which the majority of diet was made up of oatmeal), the milk diet, the rice cure, 'potato therapy' and even the use of opium! 1910-1920 • Joslin believes diabetes to be 'the best of the chronic diseases' because it was 'clean, seldom unsightly, not contagious, often painless and susceptible to treatment.'
History of Diabetes-2 Summer 1921 • Insulin is 'discovered'. A de-pancreatized dog is successfully treated with insulin. 1940s • Link is made between diabetes and long-term complications (kidney and eye disease). 1955 • Oral drugs are introduced to help lower blood glucose levels. 1959 • Two major types of diabetes are recognized: type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes and type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. 1960 & 1970 • The purity of insulin is improved. Home testing for sugar levels in urine increases level of control for people with diabetes. Blood glucose meters and insulin pumps are developed. Laser therapy is used to help slow or prevent blindness in some people with diabetes. 1998 • The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) is published. UKPDS results clearly identify the importance of good glucose control and good blood pressure control in the delay and/or prevention of complications in type 2 diabetes.
Food Groups to: Prevent Diabetes Reduce Diabetes
Food Groups Identified with Disease Prevention
Ethics • Maintain an acceptable lifestyle. 2. Food Diary – Record the time. Record the amount, read food labels. 3. Regular exercise. 4. Regularly test and record blood glucose.
Ethics 5. Follow doctor’s directions to take insulin or oral medication. 6. Do not omit or reduce your diabetes medications. 7. Practice self-control when dining.
Exercise Exercise has a number of benefits: • Control your weight • Lower your blood sugar level • Increased energy • Lowered cholesterol • Decreased stress • Weight management • A feeling of control Source: http://www.bddiabetes.com/us/main.aspx?cat=1&id=288
What kinds of exercise should I do? • Endurance Activities: 3 to 5 days per week to strengthen your heart and lungs and improve your circulation • Strength Activities: 3 days a week to build your muscles and bones, improve posture and balance, and prevent osteoporosis • Flexibility Activities 5 to 7 days a week to keep your muscles and joints relaxed and mobile Source: http://www.bddiabetes.com/us/main.aspx?cat=1&id=288
Choice or Chance • Games engage students • Learn nutrition facts from labels • Flow chart • Interactive activities “I see. . . I hear . . . I do. ..I remember”
Proactive Activity • Respiration, pulse rate • Duration • Daily Routine • Sports Group
Movement AcrossMembranes Problem: Which substances are able to pass through a cellophane membrane? Goals: In this investigation, you will observe whether solutions containing starch, sugar, and food coloring are able to pass through cellophane Hypothesis: Carefully read the investigation before stating your hypothesis Analysis: 1. ____________ 2. _________________ 3. ______________
Movement AcrossMembranes Source: Addison-Wesley