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Tissues. Cells specialize – heart, liver, skeletal muscle, stomach, etc. If loss of indispensible cells, deadly Tissue – groups of cells similar in structure and function Epithelium - covering Connective - support Nervous - control Muscle - movement. Lining, covering, and glandular tissue

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Cells specialize – heart, liver, skeletal muscle, stomach, etc. If loss of indispensible cells, deadly

  • Tissue – groups of cells similar in structure and function
    • Epithelium - covering
    • Connective - support
    • Nervous - control
    • Muscle - movement

Lining, covering, and glandular tissue

    • Glands in body
    • Covers all free body surfaces
      • Skin, lines cavities
  • Separates us from outside
    • All substance make and absorb pass through
  • Functions
    • Protection - skin
    • Absorption – small intestine
    • Filtration - kidneys
    • Secretion - glands

Fit closely together

    • Desmosomes
    • Tight Junctions
  • Basement membrane
    • Structureless, secreted by both epithelial cells and connective tissue
  • Apical surface – all have one free edge
    • Some smooth, some microvilli, cilia
  • Avascular – rely on capillaries in connective tissue for food and oxygen
  • Regenerate easily

Figure 3.17


Figure 3.17a

  • Two classifications
    • # of layers
    • Shape of cells
  • Simple Epithelia most common with absorption, secretion, filtration
    • Very thin – not protective
  • Stratified Epithelia
    • Named for apical surface
    • Primarily protective

Figure 3.18a

  • Single layer, close together
  • Membranes where filtration or exchange of substances by rapid diffusion occurs
    • WHERE?
  • Serous membranes
    • Slick membranes that line ventral cavity and cover organs

Cubed shape, single layer, basement membrane

Common in glands and ducts – salivary glands and pancreas, kidney tubules, and ovaries

Figure 3.18b


Tall cells, single layer, basement membrane

Line digestive tract from stomach to anus

Mucous membranes – membranes that line cavities open to exterior

Figure 3.18c


Some cell shorter than other, nuclei at different heights

All cells on basement membrane

Absorption and secretion

Ciliated version lines respiratory tract – propels mucus

Figure 3.18d


Figure 3.18e

  • Most common stratified epithelia
  • Close to surface cells are squamous, near basement membrane cuboidal or columnar
  • Sites of abuse or friction
    • Esophagus, mouth, outer layer of skin

Stratified Cuboidal

    • Typically 2 layers with surface layer being cuboidal
  • Stratified Columnar
    • Surface cells columnar
    • Basal cells vary
  • Both rare in body, found in ducts of large glands

Figure 3.18f

Modified stratified squamous

Lines urinary bladder, ureters, and part of urethra

Cells slide past each other allows stretching as urine enters.


Gland consists of one or more type of cell that secretes a product

    • Exocrine Gland – Ducts, secrete products through ducts to epithelia, external and internal – sweat glands, pancreas
    • Endocrine Gland - Ductless glands, secrete product into blood for transport

Figure 3.18f


Protecting, supporting and binding together

  • Characteristics
    • Extracellular Matrix – nonliving, outside cell
    • Most well vascularized
      • Exceptions – tendons and ligaments poor blood supply, cartilages are avascular – heal slowly

# of cells in relation to matrix varies

  • Extracellular Matrix – water reservoir for body
    • Nonliving substance outside the cell
    • Produced by Conn. Tissue cells and secreted
      • Ground substance – water, adhesion proteins – attach to fibers, charged polysaccharides – trap water as intertwine.
      • Fibers – various types
        • Collagen – white fibers, high tensile strength
        • Elastic – yellow fibers, stretch and recoil
        • Reticular – fine collagen fibers, form internal “skeleton” of soft organs

Osseous tissue

  • Bone cells surrounded by hard matrix
  • Matrix made of
    • Calcium salts and large amounts of collagen fibers

Figure 3.19a


Figure 3.19b

More flexible than bone

Most abundant

Collagen fibers hidden by glassy matrix

Supporting structure like larynx, attaches ribs to bone, and covers heads of bone at joints

Skeleton of fetus


Figure 3.19c

Forms cushion like discs that separate vertebrae of spinal column.


Figure 3.19d

  • Collagen fibers as main matrix element
  • Fibroblasts – fiber forming cells
  • Lower layers of dermis
  • Form rope-like structure
    • Tendons – muscle to bone
    • Ligaments – bone to bone at joints

Softer, more cells, less fibers

Cobwebby tissue, cushions and protects organs

Holds internal organs together and in place

Body part inflamed, this tissue soaks up fluid and swells. What is this called?

Figure 3.19e



  • Oil droplet fill most of cell, compresses nucleus
  • Protects some organs – kidneys and eyes
  • Storages – breasts and hips for fuel
  • Subcutaneous tissue beneath skin
    • Insulates and protects from bumps and heat changes

Figure 3.19f


Reticular fibers and cells

  • Forms stroma which can support free blood cells
    • Lymphocytes in lymphoid organs like spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow

Figure 3.19g


Figure 3.19h

Blood cells surrounded by fluid non-living matrix (plasma)

Fibers are soluble, only visible during clotting event

Unique connective tissue


Attach to bone




Long cylindrical

Often called muscle fibers

Figure 3.20a


Figure 3.20b

Found only in heart

Pumps and propels blood




Branched cells that fit together at intercalated discs


No striations


Spindle shaped

Found in walls of hollow organs – stomach, intestines

Contracts more slowly that others,


Figure 3.20c


Figure 3.21

Irritability and conductivity major function

Neurons – Cytoplasm stretched out as much as 3 feet, conduct signals over long distance

Supporting cells – insulate, support and protect neurons