The Ethics behind a Country’s Response and Responsibility to Dealing with Emerging Diseases - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Ethics behind a Country’s Response and Responsibility to Dealing with Emerging Diseases

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  1. The Ethics behind a Country’s Response and Responsibility to Dealing with Emerging Diseases Wolf, Steven AP Biology Period 3 June 11

  2. Emerging Diseases • Def: a disease that has appeared in a population for the first time, or that may have existed previously but is rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range (“Emerging Diseases,” World Health Organization). • Examples: AIDS/HIV, Ebola, Avian Flu

  3. AIDS/HIV • HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) • Targets and destroys Helper T cells and CD4 cells (immunodeficiency) • AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) - final stage of HIV • All over the world • sexually transmitted infection (STI) • Hard to treat because rapidly mutating • Prevent transmission • Abstinence • Condoms • HIV Tests • Medication to stop transmission across the placenta

  4. Ebola • Common name for severe hemorrhagic fever • Caused by a filovirus- loop • Extremely fatal (up to 90%) fatality • Causes sever hemorrhagic bleeding • Transmission: by blood in humans • Disease spreads quickly in poor African countries where they reuse needles • Treatment • Isolation (barrier nursing techniques) • proper hydration & nutrition • watch blood pressure • no known vaccine/cure • Several types, could still be mutating (ex: Zaire, Reston)

  5. Avian Flu • formally known as avian influenza, may hear “bird flu” • in domestic birds, ex: chickens, turkey, duck, may cause sickness and death • Transmission in birds, contact with: • feces • Shedding • Saliva • Other excretions • sometimes low fatality, but could reach 90-100 percent in 48 hours • H5N1 most deadly of avian influenza viruses in birds • There have been cases of transmission to humans through close contact with contaminated specimens or birds • Inefficient spread from human to human • More than half of people infected with disease have died, because little immune response • currently there is a vaccine approved by FDA for one type of H5N1 virus • added to US stockpile, not to public • will be distributed in case of pandemic

  6. Question 1: What responsibility does a country have to find a cure for an emerging disease? • Medical testing on animals • Pro: • Humans don’t get harmed • Testing on living being over time advantage over computer simulations • Con: • Do not show similarities between humans and animals because differences are to great (ex: Phen Fen) • Computer programs are good alternatives • Pro: Because best to save human lives (comps. are not a replacement for living specimens; living specimens code comps.)

  7. Question 1: What responsibility does a country have to find a cure for an emerging disease? • Medical Testing on Humans • Pro: • Rigid testing procedure • Humans show side effects after long term use • Informed consent • Con • The size of reward to finding cure often makes researchers ignore human subjects (ex: Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1932-1972)

  8. Question 2: Once a cure is found, should it be given to other countries? • Pro: • Gain information on spread of disease and effectiveness of cure • Strengthen diplomatic ties • Supporters: • Me • Con • May run out of treatment for own country • carrying capacity acting on population growth, don’t interfere w/ nature • Its up to them to make there own stockpile of drugs • Supporters: • Mr. Fazio

  9. Question 3: What responsibility does a country has to help its own country ? • South African inmates hunger strike • do they need to provide HIV testing and treatment • Criminals vs. citizens • Myanmar refuses help from other countries • May 2 cyclone devastates Irrawaddy Delta • Until May 26, 2008, military Junta refused help • Would they accept help in an epidemic?