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what is a game
What is a game?
  • Image Credit:
what is a game1
What is a game?
  • Salen and Zimmerman define a game as ‘a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome.’ (2003: 80)
  • Champion defines a game as 'a challenge that offers up the possibility of temporary or permanent tactical resolution without harmful outcomes to the real world situation of the participants.' (2011: 84)
  • ‘games serve as very fundamental and powerful learning tools.’ (Koster, 2005: 36)
what is a game2
What is a game?
  • Key Concepts:
  • Challenge or conflict: a game needs a goal to drive player actions.
  • Players: game needs at least one player to be actively involved.
  • Rules: game use rules to structure player experience.
  • Real or artificial: games are removed from real world consequences.
  • (Modified from Salen and Zimmerman 2003: 80)
what is a game3
What is a game?
  • Challenge or conflict, Players,Rules, Real or artificial.
  • Examples: Monopoly, Grand Theft Auto, Football
games related issues
Games: Related Issues
  • Rules
  • Interactivity
  • Feedback
  • Play
games related issues rules
Games: Related Issues - Rules
  • Rules
  • ‘Constituative rules’ the coded restrictions
  • ‘Operational rules’ the rules of the game
  • ‘Implicit rules’ social and physical

(Modified from Salen and Zimmerman 2003: 139)

games related issues interactivity
Games: Related Issues - Interactivity
  • Interactivity
  • ‘Cognitive interactivity’, (what you imagine)
  • ‘Functional interactivity’ (the qualities of the system)
  • ‘Explicit interactivity’ (clicking buttons, etc.)

(Modified from Salen and Zimmerman 2003: 69)

games related issues feedback
Games: Related Issues - Feedback
  • Feedback (positive, negative)
  • Feedback is a process in which information about the past or the present influences the samephenomenonin the present or future. As part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop, the event is said to "feed back" into itself. (From the Wikipedia entry for feedback)
  • Interface feedback: cursor, sound, change of state
games related issues play
Games: Related Issues - Play
  • ‘Play is free movement within a more ridged structure.’ (Salen and Zimmerman 2003: 304)
  • Caillous defines play as:
  • ‘Free’
  • ‘Separate’
  • ‘Uncertain’
  • ‘Unproductive’
  • ‘Governed by rule’
  • ‘Make-believe’
  • (Caillous, 1961: 9-10)
games and experience design
Games and Experience Design
  • Gamification
games and experience design1
Games and Experience Design
  • Gamificationis the use of game design techniques[1], game thinking and game mechanics to enhance non-game contexts. Typically gamification applies to non-game applications and processes, in order to encourage people to adopt them, or to influence how they are used. (From the Wikipedia page for gamification)
  • Rewards, levels, leader boards, progress bars, competition, mini-games,

Caillois, R. (2001) Man, Play, and Games. University of Illinois Press. Translated by Meyer Barash

  • Champion, E. (2011) Playing with the past. London, Springer.
  • Koster, R. (2005) A Theory of Fun for Games Design. ParaglyphPress.
  • Salen, K. & Zimmerman, E. (2003) Rules of Play : Game Design Fundamentals. Cambridge, Massachusetts; London, England, MIT Press.