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Forest Fragmentation Leads to Behavioral Changes in the Bearded Saki, Chiropotes satanas chiropotes. Sarah Boyle 1 & Wilson Spironello 2 1 Arizona State University, USA 2 Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Brazil sarahannboyle@gmail.com. Amazonia forest: Largest rainforest.

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slide1

Forest Fragmentation Leads to Behavioral Changes in the Bearded Saki, Chiropotes satanas chiropotes

Sarah Boyle 1 & Wilson Spironello 2

1 Arizona State University, USA

2 Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Brazil

sarahannboyle@gmail.com

slide3

Deforestation: Global problem

    • 13 million ha/yr lost (FAO 2007)
  • Amazon: Largest rainforest
    • 2.4 million ha/yr lost in Brazilian Amazon
    • (Laurance et al. 2004)
bearded saki monkey
Bearded Saki Monkey
  • Not much known
  • Defies convention:
    • Large home range
    • Large group size
    • Highly frugivorous
      • Seeds (ripe, unripe)

Luiz Claudio Marigo/WRPC Archives

research question
Research Question
  • How does forest fragmentation affect the behavioral ecology of the northern bearded saki monkey?
  • Group size
  • Matrix use
  • Activity budget
  • Diet
  • Spatial patterns

Luiz Claudio Marigo/WRPC Archives

primate census
Primate Census
  • 1980-2006
    • Rylands and Keuroghlian (1988)
    • Schwarzkopf and Rylands (1989)
    • Gilbert (2003)
    • Boyle (2008)
  • Line transects
data collection 2003 2006
Data Collection 2003-2006
  • Track for 3 days/cycle
  • Group scan samples
    • GPS location
    • Group size/composition
    • Behavior
    • Diet
distribution 2003 2006
Distribution 2003-2006

Present

Absent

100 ha

10 ha

1 ha

distribution 2003 20061
Distribution 2003-2006

Present

Absent

NOT ISOLATED

100 ha

10 ha

1 ha

slide16

Home Range

  • Continuous forest: 300-600 ha
  • Permanent residents of fragments: 3% of “normal” home range

vs.

430 ha

10 ha

group size
Group Size

Density

F(3,3)= 43.80, P = 0.0056

F(3,3)= 35.75, P = 0.0076

slide19

Diet

Continuous Forest

100-ha Fragments

10-ha Fragments

Seeds 83%

Fruit 17%

X Diet vs. Forest size

slide20
Diet
  • 244 species
    • 2% consumed in all sites
    • 60% consumed at only one site
  • Trees with fruit (phenological surveys)
    • 36% species never consumed
distance traveled

F(3,3) = 155.13, P < 0.001

Distance Traveled

F(3,3)= 52.20, P = 0.0043

F(3,3)= 431.78, P < 0.001

slide22

Distance

10-ha fragment

Distance: 3.09 km

8 ha = total area used

Continuous forest

Distance: 4.07 km

96 ha = total area used

slide23

Revisits

F(3,3)= 103.34, P = 0.0016

slide24

Overview of Findings

  • Can reside in small patches
    • But small, high-density groups
  • No births in small fragments during study
  • Avoid low-growth matrix
  • Diet differences
    • Nutritional differences?
  • Spatial patterns vary
    • Home range, distance traveled, circular routes
slide25

Future Directions

  • Monitor population
  • (movement, births)
  • Analysis of use of
  • secondary forest

R. Bierregaard, Jr.

  • Nutritional analyses of diet
  • Continued examination of factors predicting vulnerability to fragmentation
slide26

Acknowledgements

Waldete Castro Lourenço

Lívia Rodrigues da Silva

Alaercio Marajo dos Réis

Osmaildo Ferreria da Silva

Lucas da Silva Mergulhão

Alexandro Elias dos Santos

Regina Luizão

Charles Zartman

Funding

Arizona State University

Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fulbright/IIE

Providing Educational Opportunities (PEO)

Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation

Organization for Tropical Studies

National Science Foundation

Primate Conservation, Inc.

American Society of Primatologists

IDEA WILD