A CLOSER LOOK AT NOUNS. Introdução aos Sintagmas da Língua Inglesa Prof.ª Dn Flávia Cunha 2014.1. A CLOSER LOOK AT NOUNS. WHAT ARE NOUNS? Nouns are words that name a person, place, or thing in a sentence, and they are classified according to their meaning. A CLOSER LOOK AT NOUNS.
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Introdução aos Sintagmas da Língua Inglesa
Prof.ª Dn Flávia Cunha
WHAT ARE NOUNS?
Nouns are words that name a person, place, or thing in a sentence, and they are classified according to their meaning.
COMMON NOUNS AND PROPER NOUNS
A word which names a person, place or thing in general is called a common noun.
e.g. waiter, dog, girl, house, car, and city.
When a word names a particular, or the only, member of a class or group it is called a proper noun. Proper nouns are always capitalized.
e.g. Paul (the name of a particular person ),
Doberman (the name of a particular kind of dog),
New Brunswick (the name of a particular province), and Ottawa (the name of a particular city).
CONCRETE NOUNS AND ABSTRACT NOUNS
If a noun names something that can be detected by the five senses, it is called a concrete noun. Nouns like table, house, car, brain, cloud, sky are concrete nouns. On the other hand, if a noun refers to qualities which do not exist in the real world and cannot be felt, tasted, seen, heard or touched, they are categorized as abstract nouns.
Examples: honesty, pride, beauty, swiftness, friendship, height, speed, faith
Collective nouns name groups or collections of people, places and things.
Examples: team, crowd, audience, jury, committee.
Collective nouns have both singular and plural forms: one committee, six committees.
Example: Six trials are scheduled so the judge called six juries.
Most nouns refer to things that can be counted like apples, steaks, miles, chairs, bracelets, dollars, and are, therefore called count nouns. Mass nouns, however, are similar to collective nouns, but refer to non-living things which cannot be counted: They are always used in the singular even though they refer to many items. Some grammar books call these mass nouns as non-count nouns/uncountable nouns.
Examples: meat, land, furniture, money, food, gold, clothing, equipment.
FORMS OF NOUNS
1. SINGULAR AND PLURAL
Nouns may be singular referring to one, or plural, referring to more than one. Most nouns change their form by adding “s” when they are plural. However, there are exceptions to every rule - and exceptions for the exceptions.
2. POSSESSIVE NOUNS
Common and proper nouns can sometimes be further classified as possessive nouns. A possessive noun shows ownership, belonging, or that something is part of something else.
e.g. Libby’s front teeth, Eva’s big smile, Greg’s tiny nose
EXERCISE: A. Underline all the nouns you can find.
1. The dog chased the cat under the porch.
2. Muffins made with blueberries are delicious.
3. My daughter sold her computer to a friend.
4. Robert drove his car to Saint John and shopped for a new truck.
5. So much snow covered the roads that even truck drivers pulled into motels.
6. The passengers on the ship witnessed the collision with the iceberg.
7. The Titanic sank in a few hours; many husbands and wives were separated.
8. Penguins live near the South Pole, but these birds aren’t bothered by the cold.
9. Many retired couples move to Florida where the weather is warmer.
B. Write 3 sentences of your own. Underline all the nouns you used.
Nouns can be recognized by the following syntactic characteristics:
the young boy
my two cats
a large pizza
those lovely flowers
a computer programmer
When a noun is head of a subject noun phrase, it agrees in person and number with the tensed verb of the clause:
e.g. Their apologies were accepted.