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Module – Who am I? Who are you?. Lesson 3 – Forging an identity. How to Navigate Tutorial. Click on hyperlinks within each slide first. Click on to move to the next slide. Click on to move to the previous slide. Click on the icon to return to the index.

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module who am i who are you

Module – Who am I? Who are you?

Lesson 3 – Forging an identity.

how to navigate tutorial
How to Navigate Tutorial

Click on hyperlinks within each slide first.

Click on to move to the next slide.

Click on to move to the previous slide.

Click on the icon to return to the index.

lesson 3 forging an identity
Lesson 3 – Forging an identity
  • A Summary of Models
    • Tripartite Model of Personality Development
    • African American Identity Development
    • White Identity Development
    • Multi-Racial Identity Development
    • Gay/Lesbian Identity Development
    • Transgender Identity Development
  • The Layering Effect
  • A Critique of the Model Approach
  • References
a summary of models
Tripartite Model of Personality Development, African American Identity Development, White Identity Development, Multi-Racial Identity Development, Gay/Lesbian Identity Development, Transgender Identity DevelopmentA Summary of Models
tripartite model of personality development1
Tripartite Model ofPersonality Development
  • Individual
    • “We are all unique”
  • Group
    • Shapes how we see ourselves and others
  • Universal
    • “We are all the same”
african american identity development
African AmericanIdentity Development
  • Pre-encounter
    • Internalization of society’s attitudes
  • Encounter
    • Event forces re-evaluation
  • Immersion/emersion
    • Reversal
  • Internalization
    • Secure about identity




white identity development
White Identity Development
  • Assumptions
    • Racial attitudes are central part of identity
      • Contact Status
        • Unaware of racism / discrimination / privilege / prejudices
        • Hold opposing beliefs
          • White is superior / Other is inferior
          • Race and culture don’t matter
      • Healthy identity requires abandonment of these racial attitudes
white identity model continued
White Identity Model continued
  • Disintegration
  • Reintegration
  • Pseudoindependence
  • Immersion
  • Autonomy

Racist Attitudes


Non-Racist Attitudes

multi racial identity development
Multi-Racial Identity (Poston, 1990)

Multi-Racial Identity (Root, 2004)

  • Personal identity
  • Choice of a group
  • Enmeshment / denial
  • Appreciation
  • Integration
  • Resolution of Process
    • Accept assigned identity
    • Identify w/ all groups
    • Identify w/ single group
    • Identity w/ “mixed” or new group
Multi-Racial Identity Development
objective 6
Describe the stages of “coming out” as experienced by gays and lesbians, according to Cass (1979) modelObjective#6
the coming out process
The “Coming Out” Process
  • Confusion
  • Comparison
  • Tolerance
  • Acceptance
  • Pride
  • Synthesis
transgender identity development
Transgender Identity Development
  • Exiting a Traditional Gendered Identity
  • Developing a Personal Transgender Identity
  • Developing a Transgender Social Identity
  • Becoming a Transgender Offspring
  • Developing a Transgender Intimacy Status
  • Entering a Transgender Community



the layering effect
The Layering Effect
  • “triple jeopardy”
  • Belong to many groups, although one may be more important
  • Dependent upon the situation and the person

Racial Salience


a critique of the model approach
A Critique of the Model Approach
  • Assumes a linear progression
  • Not all minorities begin with idealization of whiteness
  • Assumes the final stage is the “healthiest”
  • Generational differences possible
  • Overemphasis on reactions to racism
  • Lacking empirical evidence
glbt issues
GLBT Issues
  • Sampling Issues
    • Adult populations (introspective experiences)
    • “Out” GLBT population
    • Great variation of transgender community
  • Limitations
    • Models for gays and lesbians (not heterosexuals)
    • Little research on bisexual and transgender identities

Bilodeau, B. and Renn, K. (2005). Analysis of LBGT Identity Development Models and Implications for Practice. Retrieved September 20, 2009 from

Mio, J.S., Barker, L., & Tumambing, J. (2009). Multicultural Psychology: Understanding Our Diverse Communities (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Pardo, T. (2008, March). Growing Up Transgender: Research and Theory. Retrieved September 20, 2009 from