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Chapters 10 and 11. Combining Sentences. Combining Sentences . Most of these combining techniques will include turning two or more sentences into one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses (look like complete sentences, but don't make sense when they stand alone )

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chapters 10 and 11

Chapters 10 and 11

Combining Sentences

combining sentences
Combining Sentences
  • Most of these combining techniques will include turning two or more sentences into one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses (look like complete sentences, but don't make sense when they stand alone)
  • Dependent or subordinate clauses will have a subject and a verb, but do not form a complete thought
  • Do not pass the “I know that” test
use subordinating ideas
Use Subordinating Ideas
  • Use a subordinating conjunction to combine ideas. (You will end up with an independent and subordinate clause in your sentence.)
  • Select your subordinating conjunction to show the relationship between your ideas.
    • Time: after, before, until, while…
    • Cause/Reason: because, since, whereas…
    • Purpose/Result: in order that, so that…
    • Condition: although, if, unless…
      • **see the chart on page 421
use coordinating ideas to create compound elements
Use Coordinating Ideas to create Compound Elements
  • Use this with "separate but equal" ideas.
  • Use a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) or a correlative conjunction (both...and, either...or, neither...nor).
  • These will create compound sentences or sentences that have compound subjects or compound predicates.
examples
Examples
  • Mary went to the store to buy shoes. Mary realized she left her wallet at home. Mary couldn’t buy the shoes.
    • Mary went to the store to buy shoes, but she realized she left her wallet at home, so she couldn’t buy the shoes.
  • Mary went to the store. Tom went to the store.
    • Mary and Tom went to the store.
  • Mary washed the dishes. Mary vacuumed the living room.
    • Mary washed the dishes and vacuumed the living room.
  • Mary was busy!
practice makes perfect
Practice Makes Perfect
  • Page 421: Exercise 1
  • Page 443-444: Exercise 4
use subordinating ideas1
Use Subordinating Ideas
  • Use an Adjective Clause.
  • To do this, use "who, whose, which, or that" to attach the idea.
  • Adjective Clauses look like independent clauses, but do not form a complete idea.
  • Adjective clauses will describe a noun or pronoun.
  • pg 422-423, 444-445
examples1
Examples
  • I wore a dress to my sister’s wedding. I hated the dress.
    • I wore a dress that I hated to my sister’s wedding.
  • Becky is the person you need to talk to about volunteering. She is the person in charge of the fundraiser.
    • Becky, who is in charge of the fundraiser, is the person you need to talk to about volunteering.
use subordinating ideas2
Use Subordinating Ideas
  • Use an Adverb Clause.
  • Look like an independent clause, do not form complete thoughts
  • It will modify a verb, adjective, or another adverb.
    • Use a subordinating conjunction (although, after, because, if, when, where, while).
  • This will show a relationship of time, place, cause/reason, purpose/result, or condition.
  • pg 421, 445
examples2
Examples
  • I finished my homework. I ate dinner.
    • After I finished my homework, I ate dinner.
    • I ate dinner after I finished my homework.
  • Jamie’s fart smelled. Everyone in the car rolled down the windows.
    • Because Jamie’s fart smelled, everyone in the car rolled down the windows.
    • Everyone in the car rolled down the windows because Jamie’s fart smelled.
use subordinating ideas3
Use Subordinating Ideas
  • Use a Noun Clause.
  • Looks like an independent clause, but does not form a complete thought
  • Noun clauses act like nouns (pass the "it" test).
    • Begin the clause with "that, how, what, whatever, who, or whoever".
  • pg 446
examples3
Examples
  • Give something to the child. Give the child what he wants.
    • Give the child whatever he wants.
  • Mike is going to get an iguana as a pet. I know this because Marcia told me.
    • Marcia told me that Mike is going to get an iguana as a pet.
practice makes perfect1
Practice Makes Perfect
  • Exercise 1 pg 421
  • Exercise 4 pg 443-444
parallel structure
Parallel Structure
  • Makes writing smoother and clearer.
  • Use the same grammatical form to express equal (or parallel) ideas.
  • Pair single words with single words, clauses with clauses, phrases with phrases, and infinitives with infinitives.
examples4
Examples
  • John prefers singing and to cook.
    • John prefers singing and cooking.
    • John prefers to sing and to cook.
  • Our mom promises that we will visit a state park and a lake to swim.
    • Our mom promises that we will visit a state part and that we will swim in a lake.
  • To have weight training is as important as running regularly.
    • Weight training is as important as running regularly.
examples5
Examples
  • Use parallel structure when linking ideas with correlative conjunctions: both…and, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also
  • Mike likes both swimming and to play football.
    • Mike likes both swimming and playing football.
  • Neither having 100 mosquito bites, nor a snake bite sound like fun to me.
    • Neither having 100 mosquito bites, nor suffering a snake bite sound like fun to me.
practice makes perfect2
Practice Makes Perfect
  • Exercise 3 pg 425-426
  • Review A pg 426
add key words or phrases from one sentence into another
Add key words or phrases from one sentence into another
  • This will make the sentence you took the key words from into a dependent clause. This can be done by using a key word single word modifier or through a prepositional phrase.
  • Busy Prepositions!
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8GI4sDoTlK0
  • pg437-438, Ex 1 pg 439
use a participial phrase
Use a Participial Phrase
  • A participial phrase contains a participle and any modifiers or complements related to the participle
  • The whole phrase acts like an adjective, but begins with something that looks like a verb
  • Awakened by the uproar, the group’s guide, Simon, stumbled from his tent to find the bear between him and his qamatiik, the sledgepulled by his snowmobile, where he kept his rifle.
use an absolute phrase
Use an Absolute Phrase
  • An absolute phrase consists of a participial phrase, a noun or pronoun that it modifies, and any modifiers of the noun or pronoun
  • Looks like a verb (or like an entire sentence), but functions as an adverb
  • Bring additional information and help to emphasize certain ideas
  • Excited sea gulls screeching in protest, the men on horseback raced down the beach.
  • pg 439-440, Ex 2 pg 441
use an appositive phrase
Use an Appositive Phrase
  • An appositive identifies the noun or pronoun in a sentence in a different way
  • It will be right next to the noun it identifies/describes and will be set off with commas
  • Tombaugh climbed up into the scaffolding of the sixteen-inch telescope, a steel-and-glass affair that loomed up into the dark.
  • pg 441-442, Ex 3 pg 442