PATTERNS OF PARENTAL AUTHORITY PERMISSIVE PARENTS Low level of control and discipline Low level of maturity demands High level of parent-child communication High level of nurturance and warmth AUTHORITARIAN PARENTS High level of control and discipline High level of maturity demands Low level of parent-child communication Low level of nurturance and warmth AUTHORITATIVE PARENTS High level of control and discipline High level of maturity demands High level of parent-child communication High level of nurturance and warmth
The Coercive Cycle INEPT DISCIPLINE (Power-assertive techniques, inconsistent discipline, negative and positive re-inforcement for aggression, modeling of aggression) CHILD COERCION (Whining, teasing, yelling, physical assaults) ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR (Violence in home and school)
4 3 Hours of TV per Day 2 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Age in Years
Styles of Parental Regulation and Children's Television Viewing Degree of Regulation Degree of Encouragement Hours of TV Viewed per Week Style of Supervision Low High Low High Low Low High High 17.6 11.9 21.2 19.2 Laissez-faire Restrictive Promotive Selective
Concerns About the Effects of TV on Children • Amount of time spent watching • Effects of commercials • Effects of violence
COGNITIVE LEVELS OF PLAY • FUNCTIONAL PLAY: Simple repeated movements with a focus on the child’s own body • CONSTRUCTIVE PLAY: Manipulation of physical objects in order to build or construct something. • DRAMATIC OR MAKE-BELIEVE PLAY: Pretending to be someone or something else • GAMES WITH RULES: Relatively formal activities governed by rules
SOCIAL LEVELS OF PLAY • UNOCCUPIED: Child's activities seem to have no clear purpose or goals • SOLITARY: Child plays alone • ONLOOKER: Child watches other children play • PARALLEL: Children play near each other engages in similar activities but without significant interaction • ASSOCIATIVE: Children play together and interact in a common activity but with separate goals • COOPERATIVE: Children consciously play together to accomplish a common goal
ASPECTS OF GENDER DEVELOPMENT • GENDER: The behavior and attitudes associated with being male or female • GENDER IDENTITY: A person’s beliefs about which sex he or she is and will always be • GENDER PREFERENCE: A person’s attitudes about which sex he or she wishes to be • GENDER CONSTANCY: The belief that a person’s sex is biologically determined and permanent
Steps in Gender Development XX or XY Chromosomes Ovaries or Testes Female of Male Genitals Brain Development Social Reaction to Child Child's Reaction Hormones (estrogen, progesterone, androgen, testosterone) at Puberty Basic Gender Identity Models Sexual urges and Self-Concept Adult Gender Identity
Male Characteristics Independent Aggressive Acts as leader Self-confident Dominant Active Ambitious Outspoken Adventurous Competitive Likes math and science Takes a stand Makes decisions easily Skilled in business Female Characteristics Emotional Grateful Kind Creative Gentle Understanding Aware of others' feelings Enjoys art and music Tactful Considerate Home oriented Cries Easily Devotes self to others Strong conscience
TYPES OF CHILD ABUSE • PHYSICAL ABUSE • SEXUAL ABUSE • PHYSICAL NEGLECT • EMOTIONAL NEGLECT • PSYCHOLOGICAL ABUSE Painful, physically damaging assault Sexual molestation or exploitation Insufficient provision of food, shelter, clothing, medical care Failure to provide basic nurturance and emotional support required for normal development Actions that damage a child's emotional, social, or intellectual functioning
Some Causes of Child Abuse • Parents were abused as children. • Unrealistic expectations of children. • Lack of effective parenting techniques. • “Difficult” children (demanding, hyperactive, mentally retarded, etc.) • Social isolation; parents lack a support system. • We live in a violent society.
Summary of Early Childhood Psychosocial Development • Increasingly complex, imaginative play. • Well-developed self image and gender identity • Resolves the Oedipus or Electra complex. • Resolves the Eriksonian crisis of Initiative vs. Guilt. • Parenting style and disciplinary approach affect child.