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Myers EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (6th Edition in Modules). Module 11 Introduction to Sensation and Perception: Vision James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers. Sensation. Sensation

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myers exploring psychology 6th edition in modules
Myers EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (6th Edition in Modules)

Module 11

Introduction to Sensation and Perception: Vision

James A. McCubbin, PhD

Clemson University

Worth Publishers

sensation
Sensation
  • Sensation
    • the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energy
  • Perception
    • the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
sensation3
Sensation
  • Our sensory and perceptual processes work together to help us sort out complex images
sensation4
Sensation
  • Bottom-Up Processing
    • analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory information
  • Top-Down Processing
    • information processing guided by higher-level mental processes
    • as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
sensation basic principles
Sensation: Basic Principles
  • Psychophysics
    • study of the relationship between physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them
    • Light- brightness
    • Sound- volume
    • Pressure- weight
    • Taste- sweetness
sensation thresholds
Sensation: Thresholds
  • Absolute Threshold
    • minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time
  • Difference Threshold
    • minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time
    • just noticeable difference (JND)
sensation thresholds7

100

Percentage

of correct

detections

75

50

Subliminal

stimuli

25

0

Low

Absolute

threshold

Medium

Intensity of stimulus

Sensation: Thresholds
  • Subliminal
    • when stimuli are below one’s absolute threshold for conscious awareness
sensation thresholds8
Sensation: Thresholds
  • Weber’s Law
    • to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)
      • light intensity- 8%
      • weight- 2%
      • tone frequency- 0.3%
now you see it now you don t
Now you see it, now you don’t!

Sensory Adaptation- diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

vision
Vision
  • Transduction
    • conversion of one form of energy to another
    • in sensation, transforming of stimulus energies into neural impulses
  • Wavelength
    • the distance from the peak of one wave to the peak of the next
vision11
Vision
  • Hue
    • dimension of color determined by wavelength of light
  • Intensity
    • amount of energy in a wave determined by amplitude
      • brightness
      • loudness
vision physical properties of waves

Great amplitude

(bright colors, loud sounds)

Short wavelength=high frequency

(bluish colors, high-pitched sounds)

Long wavelength=low frequency

(reddish colors, low-pitched sounds)

Small amplitude

(dull colors, soft sounds)

Vision: Physical Properties of Waves
vision15
Vision
  • Accommodation- the process by which the eye’s lens changes shape to help focus near or far objects on the retina
  • Retina- the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
retina s reaction to light receptors
Retina’s Reaction to Light- Receptors
  • Rods
    • peripheral retina receptors
    • detect black, white and gray
    • for peripheral or twilight conditions
  • Cones
    • receptors near center of retina
    • fine detail and color vision
    • for daylight or well-lit conditions
retina s reaction to light
Retina’s Reaction to Light
  • Optic nerve
    • nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
  • Blind Spot
    • point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a “blind spot” because there are no receptor cells located there
vision receptors

Receptors in the Human Eye

Cones

Rods

Number

6 million

120 million

Location in

retina

Center

Periphery

Sensitivity in

dim light

Low

High

Color sensitive?

Yes

No

Vision: Receptors
visual information processing

Cell’s

responses

Stimulus

Visual Information Processing
  • Feature Detectors
    • nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features
    • shape
    • angle
    • movement
visual information processing22
Visual Information Processing
  • Parallel Processing
    • simultaneous processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously
visual information processing24
Visual Information Processing
  • Trichromatic (three color) Theory
    • Young and Helmholtz
    • three different retinal color receptors
      • red
      • green
      • blue
visual information processing25
Visual Information Processing

Opponent-Process Theory- opposing retinal processes enable color vision

“ON” “OFF”

redgreen

greenred

blueyellow

yellowblue

black white

white black

visual information processing26
Visual Information Processing
  • Color Constancy
    • Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object
color deficient vision
Color-Deficient Vision
  • People who suffer red-green dificiency have trouble perceiving the number within the design