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Introduction to HACCP Principles. Lynn Knipe Animal Sciences 555.02 The Ohio State University. Why HACCP Training?.

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introduction to haccp principles

Introduction to HACCP Principles

Lynn Knipe

Animal Sciences 555.02

The Ohio State University

why haccp training
Why HACCP Training?
  • CFR417.7(b) states “…individual…(developing HACCP plans…) shall have successfully completed a course of instruction of the seven HACCP principles to meat or poultry processing…
  • Write, reassess or modify
why haccp training3
Why HACCP Training?
  • HACCP mandated for large meat & poultry plants Jan. ‘98, small plants - Jan. ‘99, & very small plants- Jan. ‘00, under MegaReg.
why haccp training4
Why HACCP Training?
  • Seafood HACCP - FDA mandated Dec. 18, 1997
  • HACCP recommended for establishments inspected under 2003 FDA Food Code.
  • Frozen Dairy Processors, ODA Division of Dairy.
why haccp
  • Consumers expecting more from foods.
  • New products present new food safety challenges.
  • Previous meat & poultry inspection needed updating.
  • Modern dining…
what is haccp
What is HACCP?
  • Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Point
  • Management tool…for producing safest food possible
  • developed by Pillsbury & NASA in 1959
      • prevent illness in space
      • prevent crumbs
haccp stated simply
HACCP Stated Simply:
  • plan, control and document safe food processing
haccp objectives
HACCP Objectives:
  • Prevent problems by controlling defects
    • key words: prevent & control
    • problems = food-borne illnesses or injuries
    • defects = hazards out of control
haccp benefits
HACCP Benefits:
  • Returning responsibility for safe products to industry
  • Loss control
      • doing it right the first time
      • decreased down time/rework
  • Defensibility - provides records of performance
haccp benefits15
HACCP Benefits:
  • Assists in allocation of resources to produce safe products.
  • Insurance costs.
  • Can be applied later to product quality and yields.
haccp costs
HACCP Costs:
  • Training – HACCP writing team, other employees
  • Writing & implementing plan.
  • Monitoring devices
      • thermometers, recorders, pH meters, etc.
haccp summary
HACCP Summary:
  • Preventive system for assuring safe food pro- duction, before it is too late.
  • Applicable to all phases of food production.
  • Control of factors affecting ingredients, process & product.
haccp programs are built upon
HACCP programs are built upon:
  • Existing regulations & guidelines
  • SSOPs
  • GMPs
  • Employee training


Education and Training



Laws and Regulations

Company Commitment to Food Safety

gmp s good manufacturing practices
GMP’s (Good Manufacturing Practices)
  • facility design/product flow
  • equipment
  • maintenance programs
  • warehousing
  • rodent/pest control
gmp s cont d
GMP’s (Cont’d)
  • incoming product programs
  • recall programs
  • voluntary
  • no records required
  • not justification for hazards not likely to occur, unless records are available.
for you to be successful with haccp management must be
For you to be successful with HACCP, management must be:
  • committed to HACCP.
  • aware of costs and benefits of HACCP.
pre haccp steps
Pre-HACCP Steps
  • Assemble HACCP Team.
  • Describe Product.
      • First page of handout (also p. 38877)
      • Develop List of Ingredients: nitrites, peanuts, milk proteins
  • Develop Flow Chart.
      • steps listed in column 1 of Form A (Handout)

Need team

members who are familiar

with the process:

FSIS HACCP Processing Categories:
      • slaughter
      • raw product-ground
      • raw product-not ground
      • thermally processed - sterile
      • not heat treated - shelf stable
      • heat treated - shelf stable
      • fully cooked - not shelf stable
      • heat treated/not fully cooked/not shelf stable
haccp principle 1 conduct a hazard analysis
HACCP Principle #1Conduct a Hazard Analysis
  • …to determine the food safety hazards…historically have occurred…reasonable possibility that it will occur…in absence of controls.. CFR9 Part 417.2(a)(1)
  • Column 2 of Form A (Handout)
types of potential hazards
Types of Potential Hazards
  • Biological - L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7, etc.
  • Chemical - cleaners, restricted ingredients, allergens, antibiotics
  • Physical - glass, metal, bone, needles, shot, ear tags
determine likelihood of hazard occurrence
Determine Likelihood of Hazard Occurrence
  • Risk Assessment.
  • Chemical & physical hazards.
      • experience & plant history may justify
  • Biological hazards need documentation.
      • pathogen test results, SSOP records, other records, scientific publications.
      • not written GMPs, without records!
preventive measures to control a hazard
Preventive Measures to Control a Hazard
  • 1. Prevent contamination
          • Letters of guarantee
  • 2. Cook or sterilize to destroy pathogens.
  • 3. Time/temperature control to prevent multiplication of pathogens.
preventive measures continued
Preventive Measures (Continued)
  • 4. Ferment to prevent multiplication of pathogens.
  • 5. Airflow to prevent environmental contamination.
  • 6. Metal detectors.
  • 7. Bone removal systems.
a ccp is
A CCP is:
  • the last point where control can (or is needed to) prevent, reduce or eliminate hazards to acceptable levels.
  • Last column of Form A.
ccp examples
CCP Examples:
  • Raw product temperature
  • Cooking
  • Chilling of cooked product
  • Slaughter - fecal contamination
  • Product formula – nitrites, allergens
  • pH adjustment
  • L. monocytogenes control -fully cooked, RTE
  • Hot holding
HACCP Principle # 3 Establish Critical Limits for Preventive (Control) Measures Associated with Identified CCPs
  • …critical limits shall… ensure that…applicable… performance targets estab-lished by FSIS…are met… - CFR9 Part 417.2(c)(3)
CL’s are criterion that must be met for each preventive measure.
  • If exceeded, or not met, product is considered adulterated.
  • (Optional) Set targets (operating limits), to minimize HACCP deviations.
  • Start with applicable regulations or guidelines.
critical limits must be
Critical limits must be:
  • based upon scientifically determined parameters.
  • quantifiable
      • %, ºF, pH, # defects, minutes, CFU’s/gm?
  • “What cannot be measured, cannot be controlled.”
critical limit examples
Critical Limit Examples
  • Temperatures and times
  • % salt
  • Water activity, Aw
  • pH or acidity
  • visual appearance?
  • hand washing?
  • microbial standards?
haccp principle 4 establish ccp monitoring procedures
HACCP Principle # 4 Establish CCP Monitoring Procedures
  • Planned sequence of observations or measurements…
  • …to assess whether or not a CCP is under control…
  • ...and to produce a record to verify process.
monitoring frequency
Monitoring Frequency
  • Continuous monitoring.
      • ideal system
      • thermocouple or pH probe w/chart recorder
  • Monitoring at established intervals.
      • manual check every X hr(s)/shift.
  • Frequency – How much out of compliance product are you able to hold?
monitoring responsibility
Monitoring Responsibility
  • Assign responsibility to management or production worker?
  • Training needed in monitoring method, purpose of monitoring, importance of accuracy.
  • Records/documents initialed by person monitoring.
monitoring responsibility44
Monitoring Responsibility
  • Note unusual circumstances.
  • Report deviations immediately.
monitoring options
Monitoring Options:
  • Actual product monitoring.
      • accuracy
      • labor intensity
      • cross contamination
  • Process monitoring
      • monitor ovens, coolers, etc.
      • continuous recording charts.
haccp principle 5 describe corrective actions
HACCP Principle # 5 Describe Corrective Actions…
  • …to be taken when there is a deviation (out of compliance or control) from an established critical limit.
  • Four parts of417.3(a)(p. 38870, Federal Register)
corrective action plans to ensure
Corrective Action Plans to Ensure:
  • ...cause of deviation… I.D.’ed & eliminated.
  • CCP…under control...
  • measures to prevent recurrence…established
  • no adulterated product is shipped.
principle 6 establish procedures to verify that the haccp system is working correctly 417 4
Principle # 6 Establish Procedures to Verify that the HACCP System is Working Correctly (417.4):
  • Verification is to a HACCP plan, what monitoring is to a CCP.
  • Includes initial validation & on-going verification.
initial validation
Initial Validation
  • Demonstrate that your HACCP plan is adequate to prevent, reduce or eliminate hazards.
  • New establishments or new product categories: 90 day trial period to validate.
  • Generate and review records.
  • Scientific documentation.
on going verification
On-Going Verification:
  • Demonstrate that your HACCP plan is working as you intended.
  • Ensure that employees are following your established procedures for record keeping & handling product deviations.
verification must include
Verification Must Include:
  • Review of records generated by the HACCP plan.
  • Direct observations of the monitoring and corrective actions.
  • Calibration of monitoring instruments/equipment.
  • Verify that all significant hazards have a CCP
  • confirm CL’s are appropriate
  • establish that corrective actions are in place and effective
  • Total reassessment – 1x/yr.
haccp system reassessment triggers
HACCP System Reassessment Triggers:
  • new information concerning product safety
  • monitoring results
  • product link to outbreak
  • system modified- formulation, processing, distribution & consumer use
pre shipment review
Pre-Shipment Review:
  • Must be completed before product is shipped.
  • Do ASAP after monitoring.
  • Requires lot numbers on products.
  • Requires signature.
lot id could be based upon
Lot ID could be based upon:
  • full sanitation to full sanitation (FSIS)
  • day, shift, 1/2 day (Julian)
      • slaughter, cutting
  • common ingredients
      • mixer batch, brine batch
  • sublot by stuffer, oven, etc.
lot identification
Lot Identification:
  • First, ID your product lots
  • Later, tie lot information of received product to lot information of products you produce.
  • Do mock recalls to test system.
verification summary
Verification Summary
  • Direct observation & record review of monitoring & corrective actions
  • Equipment calibration
  • Reassess plan
  • Designate position (person) & frequency.
haccp principle 7 establish effective record keeping procedures
HACCP Principle # 7 Establish effective record keeping procedures:
  • ...only reference available to trace product history
  • …and actions taken to prevent a problem
  • ...assist in case of a recall.
haccp records
HACCP Records:
  • Monitoring records
  • Deviation/corrective action records
  • Verification/pre-shipment review records
haccp records60
HACCP Records:
  • Retention of records
      • 1 year for unfrozen
      • 2 years for frozen
  • Store off site after 6 mos.
  • Regulatory access in 24 hr.