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Corn quality changes in hermetic storage in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) . Nda-Agyima K. Addae-Mensah , MSc . PhD Student Klein Ileleji , PhD. Assoc. Professor & Extension Engineer. Presentation Outline. Introduction Materials and Methods Objectives Results Summary & conclusions.

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corn quality changes in hermetic storage in sub saharan africa ssa

Corn quality changes in hermetic storage in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)

Nda-Agyima K. Addae-Mensah, MSc.

PhD Student

Klein Ileleji, PhD.

Assoc. Professor & Extension Engineer

Biomass Logistics and Particle Technology Group

presentation outline
Presentation Outline

Introduction

Materials and Methods

Objectives

Results

Summary & conclusions

introduction
Introduction

Inadequate drying!

Problems in storage!

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introduction1
Introduction

Corn de-husked right after harvest

High humidity and limited sunshine hours

Safe moisture content levels,13% mc or below are not really reached .

Corn harvested at high mc levels (~30% mc) is typically dried to between 16% to 20% mc levels using open air solar drying(Weinberg, 2008)

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introduction2
Introduction

Storage bag types

PICS bag storage technology – successful and flourishing with cowpea storage (Murdock, 2012) and (Baributsa et. al. 2010)

Cowpea, usually stored at very low moistures since its mostly grown in arid areas in the tropics

However, little is known as to how well PICS bags will do for other grains stored at intermediate moisture levels

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mycotoxins
Mycotoxins

Mycotoxin production is a significant issue for SSF in SSA.

Mycotoxins have been shown to have adverse effects on human health

  • Suppress the immune system
  • Cause chronic damage to liver and kidney
  • Cause damage to the digestive and nervous system
  • Interferes with the reproductive system
  • Liver cancer caused by aflatoxins (naturally occurring mycotoxins) contributed to 70% of cancer related deaths in Africa (Farombi.,2006)

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research goals
Research goals

To systematically evaluate the effect of initial corn moisture content on oxygen depletion rate, mold growth and grain quality over time in hermetic conditions

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methods and materials
Methods and Materials

Storage tests

400 g of corn were placed in 1L glass bottles.

20 glass bottles in total were used for the preliminary study.

10 bottles were non-insulated

10 bottles were temperature insulated

The stored bottles in a controlled chamber at 25C

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methods measurement variables
Methods – Measurement Variables

CO2and O2 levels

pH (Acidity)

Moisture content

Water Activity

Temperature

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methods quality tests
Methods : Quality tests

Microbiological tests

Fat Acidity tests

Germination tests

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objectives
Objectives

This study determined the changes in quality of hermetically stored corn above safe threshold levels (14% & 22% moisture content) after 7 and 14 days of storage.

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results exploratory analysis
Results (Exploratory Analysis)

Tests were conducted before and after Storage

Analysis - Paired Sample t-tests at alpha levels of 0.05 probability levels using Microsoft Excel

Grain Quality tests

Fat Acidity

Percent corn kernels Infected

Mycotoxin (not reported)

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results moisture content tests
Results: Moisture content tests

Results for moisture content at 7 & 14 days at 25C, for temperature-insulated bottles

Results for moisture content at 7 & 14 days at 25C, for non-insulated bottles

Moisture content (%)

Moisture content (%)

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results fat acidity ph tests
Results: Fat Acidity/ pH tests

7 days, 14%mc 14 days, 14%mc 7 days, 22%mc 14 days, 22%mc

7 days, 14%mc 14 days, 14%mc 7 days, 22%mc 14 days, 22%mc

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results fat acidity ph tests1
Results: Fat Acidity/ pH tests

14 days, 22%mc

14 days, 22%mc

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results microbiological tests
Results: Microbiological tests

Percent number of corn kernels infected after 7 and 14 days of storage for non-insulated bottles

Percent number of corn kernels infected after 7 and 14 days of storage for temperature insulated bottles

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carbon dioxide and oxygen measurements non insulated bottles
Carbon dioxide and oxygen measurements Non-insulated bottles

NB: Temperature insulated bottles were not used for these tests

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summary and conclusions
Summary and Conclusions
  • There were no significant changes in the number of infected kernels at 22% mc and 14% mc.
  • There was an increase in the percent of infected kernels from the start of storage to 7 and 14 days, respectively.
  • Some lessons were learned in correcting and refining our methods for bench-scale studies

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summary and conclusions1
Summary and Conclusions

Fat acidity levels increased with increase in storage time and moisture content

There will be heating of grain due to mold growth

Learned from mistakes made in this study and will refine methods for long-term study of quality changes in hermetic stored corn at 14 to 22% moisture.

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acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Prof. Larry Murdock for helping with the Mocon device used for carbon dioxide and oxygen measurements.

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