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Period 2 (1607-1754)

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  1. Period 2 (1607-1754)

  2. Early English Settlements • Because England got such a late start in the colonization game, they couldn’t just set up their colonies wherever they wanted. • Spain dominated South America, Mexico, the West Indies, the American Southwest, and Florida • The French held sway along North America’s major waterways • In addition, the dense forests and occasionally hostile Native American tribes prevented English settlers from moving westward past the Appalachian Mountains. The early English settlements were therefore concentrated along the eastern coast of North America. • There were three types of British colonies: • Royal • Proprietary • self-governing • Each type had its own characteristics.

  3. Early English Settlements • Royal colonies were owned by the king, such as Virginia after 1624, were to be under the direct authority and rule of the king’s government. • Proprietary colonies, such as Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware, were basically land grants from the British government. • Individuals were awarded huge tracts of land that they would then supervise and govern, usually in return for political or financial favors. • These colonial governors reported directly to the king. • Self-governing colonies, including Rhode Island and Connecticut, formed when the king granted a charter to a joint-stock company, and the company then set up its own government independent of the crown. The king could revoke the colonial charter at any time and convert a self-governing colony into a royal colony.

  4. Why England Sets Sail • Mushrooming population • Enclosure movement • Unemployment • Primogeniture • Joint Stock Company • By the 1600s the joint stock company was perfected, forerunner to modern capitalism

  5. New Opportunities • A recession in the 1590s = desperate people • Get rich quick w/ the Virginia Company (1606) • Settles at Jamestown on the James River (5/24/1607)

  6. Jamestown was Founded for Economic Reasons.

  7. Jamestown Settlement

  8. Early Troubles • In May of 1607, about 100 English men established Jamestown, Virginia. • Troubles for the colony came early and often… • Forty would-be settlers died on the boat ride over. • Problems then emerged including the swampy site of Jamestown meant poor drinking water and mosquitoes causing malaria and yellow fever • “gentlemen” wasted time looking for gold rather than doing useful tasks (digging wells, building shelter, planting crops) • there were zero women on the initial ship

  9. Captain John Smith Their fortune began to change in 1608 when Captain John Smith took control and instituted a strong measure of much-needed discipline. According to legend, Smith was once kidnapped by local Chief Powhatan and then his life spared at the last moment thanks to his daughter Pocahontas. This act may well have been staged, but was intended by Powhatan to show good intentions between Indian and the whites. John Smith’s main contribution was that he gave order and discipline, highlighted by his “He who does not work, will not eat” policy. Still, the Jamestown settlers died in droves, and resorted to eating “dogs, Cats, rats, and Mice.” One fellow wrote of eating “powdered wife.”Understandably, this was known as the “starving time” in Virginia. The colonists’ next stroke of good fortune came when Lord De La Warr intercepted a ship of settlers who were abandoning the colony. He forced them to return, brought more discipline, and brought much-needed supplies. By 1625, only 1,200 out of nearly 8,000 settlers had survived.

  10. The Starving Time • POPULATION: • 1607: 104 colonists • By spring, 1608: 38 survived • 1609: 300 more immigrants • By spring, 1610: 60 survived • 1610 – 1624: 10,000 immigrants • 1624 population: 1,200 • Adult life expectancy: 40 years • Death of children before age 5: 80%

  11. Captain John SmithThe right man for the job? There was no talk…but dig gold, wash gold, refine gold, load gold…

  12. Transition to a Royal Colony • The year 1622 was a tragic one for Jamestown. • a second war with the Powhatan tribe • a slump in tobacco prices • fraudulent practices by local officials • high death rates from disease • all conspired to transform the normal rigors of colonial life into extremely hard times • Under this strain, the joint-stock company collapsed and James I revoked its charter, making Virginia a royal colony in 1624.

  13. Three major things happened in 1619… The first blacks were brought to America. It’s unclear if they were slaves or indentured servants at this time. Representative self-government came to America when Virginians created the House of Burgesses, a basic legislature to work out local issues. This set America on a pathway of self-rule. A shipload of women arrived. They were young and came with the sole purpose of marrying. This brought Virginia stability and a sense of permanence.

  14. House of Burgesses (1619) • The House of Burgesses established in 1619 & began to assume the role of the House of Commons in England • Control over finances, militia, etc. By the end of the 17c, House of Burgesseswas able to initiate legislation. A Council appointed by royal governor • Mainly leading planters. • Functions like House of Lords. • High death rates ensured rapid turnover of members.

  15. House of Burgesses (1619)

  16. Maryland • In 1632 King Charles I, granted lands bordering the Chesapeake Bay to Catholic Aristocrat Cecilius Calvert, (Lord Baltimore). • Thus Maryland became a safe-haven or refuge for Catholics in the New World. • In 1634, the first Catholic settlers arrived. • Disputing Lord Baltimore powers, the colony’s elected a representative assembly. • This loss of power, encouraged Anti-Catholic, Protestants to amp up their agitation. • This increased agitation caused Lord Baltimore to persuade the assembly to enact The Toleration Act (1649). This Act: • Granted all Christians the right to follow their beliefs and hold church services. • Repealed in the late 1600s by the Protestants who defeated the Catholics in a brief Civil War, and Catholics lost the right to vote. • In Maryland as in Virginia, tobacco quickly became the main crop and that similarity rather than any religious difference, ultimately made the two colonies very much alike in their economic and social systems.

  17. A Haven for Catholics • Baltimore permitted high degree of freedom of worship in order to prevent repeat of persecution of Catholics by Protestants. • Many Protestants got angry because of religious rights given to Catholics Toleration Act of 1649 • Supported by the Catholics in Maryland • Guaranteed toleration to all CHRISTIANS • Decreed death to those who denied the divinity of Jesus [like Jews, atheists, etc.] • In one way, it was less tolerant than before the law was passed

  18. Both Virginia and Maryland are referred to as the Chesapeake region because of the Chesapeake Bay that borders both states.

  19. Plymouth and Massachusetts were Founded for Religious Reasons.

  20. The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism • 1517, Martin Lutherstarted the Protestant Reformation when he nailed his “95 Theses” on the door of the Wittenberg Cathedral • Luther had several challenges to the Roman church • The most basic of Luther’s ideas were • The Bible or scripture alone was the source of God’s word (not the Bible and the church or pope). • People are saved by grace alone from God (salvation comes as an undeserved gift from God, not by earning it or deciding to be saved). • People are saved simply by faith in Christ alone (not by any “good works” the person might’ve done).

  21. Predestination • John Calvin preached Calvinism that stressed “predestination” (those going to Heaven or hell has already been determined by God). • Basic Christian doctrine was outlined in a 1536 document “Institutes of the Christian Religion.” • It said people were sinful. • It said only the predestined would go to Heaven. • A Calvinist expected to see signs of predestination in a person’s life. The person was to have an outward conversion, recognized by others who’d been saved. • An odd irony was created: predestination was very clear about Heaven and hell. But, it created a question as to who’s on what side? • The reasoning went: if a person lives a sinful life, then obviously he’s predestined to hell. If he lives a pious life, then he’s predestined to Heaven. • Calvinists are famous for working hard, dusk to dawn, to “prove” their worthiness. • The impact of Calvinism has been vividly stamped on the psyche of Americans, and been called the “Protestant Work Ethic.”

  22. Separatists or Pilgrims Puritans

  23. The Puritans vs. the Separatists or Pilgrims • A group of English called Puritans were moved to reform (“purify”) the Church of England. This is the point that separates Puritans from Pilgrims • Believed that only “visible saints” should be admitted to church membership • By contrast, the Pilgrims were Separatists. They vowed to break away from the Church of England (the Anglican Church) because the “saints” would have to sit with the “damned” • King James I harassed the Separatists out of England. His reasoning was that if this group of people were willing to defy him as their spiritual leader, they might also defy him as their political leader • King James I is the king for whom the King James Bible is named • There’s irony here in that the Separatists claimed King James’ Church of England had strayed from the Bible, and they likely had. Yet the “King James Bible” quickly became accepted as being a very accurate translation, and still is considered so today

  24. Differing Views: • Puritans identified with various religious groups advocating greater "purity" of worship and doctrine, as well as personal and group piety. • Separatists or Pilgrims believed that they should break away from the Church of England and form there own religion.

  25. Puritan as "A member of a group of English Protestants who in the 16th and 17th centuries advocated strict religious discipline along with simplification of the ceremonies and creeds of the Church of England." The Puritans, in short, were people who wanted to reform or purify their church. • Predestination • Good works could not save those predestined for hell • No one could be certain of their spiritual status • Gnawing doubts led to constantly seeking signs of “conversion” • Puritans Goals: • Want to reform [purify] the Church of England • Grew impatient with the slow process of Protestant Reformation back in England • Puritans also wanted to retain government control in the hands of the church—hence the rule of church membership • Gaining church membership, by the way, only occurred when the church members voted you in • All told, this meant that roughly 40% of adult men could vote • This number may seem low by today’s standards (only 40% of men and 0% of women), but it still was larger than percentages back in Europe

  26. The Pilgrims, as Separatists, wanted to completely break away from the Church of England. • They first moved to Holland with intentions of simply living there. • Then they decided they’d have to move since their children were growing up Dutch. This was understandable, of course, but they wanted their kids to grow up English. • They sought a location with English traditions where they’d be free to worship in their own way—America was the logical place. • They struck a deal with the Virginia Company and set sail from Holland aboard the Mayflower. • One person was born on the trip and one died. • They were supposed to head to Virginia, but arrived off of the coast of New England in 1620. • Wisely, the Pilgrims carefully surveyed for possible sites. Plymouth was chosen. • Leadership and security against Indians would come to be provided by Captain Myles Standish, known as “Captain Shrimp.” • Since they were in a land where they had no legal right to settle, steps had to be taken. • Before leaving the ship, the Pilgrims signed the Mayflower Compact, where they agreed to make and live by new rules. • This was the first form of self-government in New England and laid the foundation that America would be run by Americans.

  27. The Mayflower • 1620 a group of 102 people [half Separatists] • Negotiated with theVirginia Company to settle in its jurisdiction. • Non-Separatists included Captain Myles Standish. • Plymouth Bay was outside the domain of the Virginia Company. • Became squatters without legal right to land and specific authority to establish a government.

  28. The Mayflower CompactNovember 11, 1620 • Written and signed before the Pilgrims landed in Plymouth Rock • Not a constitution, but an agreement to form a crude govt. and submit to majority rule • Signed by 41 adult males • Was created because there was no fair way to resolve disputes • This was the first form of self-government in New England and laid the foundation that America would be run by Americans

  29. Covenant Theology • “Covenant of Grace”: • between Puritan communities and God • “Social Covenant”: • Between members of Puritan communities with each other • Required mutual watchfulness • No toleration of deviance or disorder • No privacy

  30. Plymouth Rock--That First Year…. • Winter of 1620-1621 • Only 44 out of the original 102 survived • None chose to leave in 1621 when the Mayflower sailed back • Fall of 1621  First “Thanksgiving.” • Colony survived with fur [especially beaver], fish, and lumber • Plymouth stayed small and economically unimportant • 1691  only 7,000 people • Merged with Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1691 to form the Province of Massachusetts Bay

  31. The First Thanksgiving October 1621

  32. William Bradford • Self-taught scholar • Chosen governor of Plymouth 30 times in yearly elections • Worried about settlements of non-Puritans springing up nearby and corrupting Puritan society

  33. Plymouth Colony

  34. The New England Colonies Massachusetts—1620 New Hampshire—1623 Connecticut—1635 Rhode Island—1636

  35. The Massachusetts Bay Colonies • 1629  Puritans got a royal charter to form the Massachusetts Bay Company • Wanted to escape attacks by conservatives in the Church of England • They didn’t want to leave the Church, just its “impurities” • 1630  1,000 people set off in 11 well-stocked ships • Established a colony with Boston as its hub • “Great Migration” of the 1630s • Turmoil in England [leading to the English Civil War] sent about 70,000 Puritans to America • Not all Puritans  20,000 separates came to Massachusetts

  36. John Winthrop • Well-off attorney and manor lord in England • Became 1st governor of Massachusetts • Believed that he had a “calling” from God to lead there • Served as governor or deputy-governor for 19 years • The colony thrived and grew with an economy based on fur trading, fishing, and shipbuilding. We shall be as a city on a hill..

  37. Characteristics of New England Settlements • Low mortality  average life expectancy was 70 years of age • Many extended families • Average 6 children per family • Average age at marriage: • Women – 22 years old • Men – 27 years old

  38. John Rolfe’s sweet tobacco • Jamestown’s salvation was found in the form of tobacco. • John Rolfe’s sweet tobacco was sought as a cash crop by Europe. Jamestown had finally found its gold. • Tobacco also had negative effects… • Its success caused settlers to scramble for more land to cultivate. It also encouraged “land butchery”—farmers would cultivate the land ‘til it gave out, then just move on • It boosted the plantation economy and created a demand for cheap labor. At first this labor was filled mostly by white indentured servants, and then as the 1600s turned into the 1700s, by black slaves • It built Virginia’s economy on a single item, tobacco. Their economy was thus susceptible to the whims of having “all their eggs in one basket.”

  39. Jamestown Colonization Pattern: 1620-1660 • Large plantations [>100 acres] • Widely spread apart [>5 miles]

  40. John Rolfe’s sweet tobacco • Tobacco’s effect on Virginia’s economy: • Vital role in putting Virginia on a firm economic footing • Ruinous to soil when continuously planted • Chained VA’s economy to a single crop Tobacco promoted the use of the plantation system • Need for cheap, abundant labor--Slavery

  41. Tobacco Prices from 1620-1710 Why did tobacco prices decline?

  42. Three major things happened in 1619… The first blacks were brought to America. It’s unclear if they were slaves or indentured servants at this time. Representative self-government came to America when Virginians created the House of Burgesses, a basic legislature to work out local issues. This set America on a pathway of self-rule. A shipload of women arrived. They were young and came with the sole purpose of marrying. This brought Virginia stability and a sense of permanence.

  43. Labor Shortage • At first the region could not keep up with the demand in Europe for tobacco. Grow More….. • and • High Death Rate caused from: • Disease • Food Shortages • Battles with Native Americans • Meant that population grew slowly. • This caused a labor-shortage. • Landowners tried several ways to find the labor they needed.

  44. Labor Shortage • Headright System: • Each Virginian got 50 acres for each Indentured Servant whose passage they paid for. • 50 acres for each immigrant who paid his own passage. • More than half of colonists prior to 1776, came to America as an Indentured Servant • Early documentation from the Virginia Company seems to suggest that a landowner could receive a Headright even if the indentured servant whose trip they sponsored did not make it to Virginia alive. • The claimants to Headright’s could receive grants for men, women and children since anyone could become an indentured servant.

  45. Labor Shortage • Slavery and the Headright system:: • Plantation owners benefited from the Headright system when they paid for the transportation of imported slaves. • This, along with the increase in the amount of money required to bring indentured servants to the colonies, contributed to the shift towards slavery in the colonies. • Until 1699, a slave was worth a Headright of fifty acres. • This number increased in the 1680s and 1690s. • Many families grew in power in colonies by receiving large tracts of land when they imported slaves. • For example, George Menefie purchased sixty slaves, and thus received 3,000 acres of land in 1638. In 1699, it was decided that Headrights would only be distributed for English citizens and that paying for the transportation of a slave could no longer guarantee land.

  46. Labor Shortage • Indentured Servitude: • 3-7 years bound to their masters. • Promised “freedom dues” [land, $] • Forbidden to marry • 1610-1614: only 1 in 10 outlived their indentured contracts • Most came from England and Germany • During the indenture period the servants were not paid cash wages, but were provided with food, accommodation, clothing and training

  47. English Tobacco Seal • First Africans arrived in Jamestown in 1619. • Their status was not clear • Perhaps slaves, perhaps indentured servants. • Slavery not that important until near the end of the 17 century.

  48. Indentured Servants Bore Most of the Work Load • Black slaves began to replace white indentures as the 1600s turned into the 1700s. Notably, this trend was common in the South and especially in the Chesapeake • The reasons for the switch from white-to-black… • The main reason boils down to the desire for a stable work force by plantation whites • White indentures lusted for, and eventually got, land of their own to the west, which led to problems with the Indians and causing Bacon’s Rebellion • Black slaves were permanent workers, not seven year workers

  49. Colonial Slavery • As the number of slaves increased, white colonists reacted to put down perceived racial threat. • Barbados Slave Codes(1661) • Chattel system By the mid-1680s, black slaves outnumbered white indentured servants