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COGNITION PowerPoint Presentation

COGNITION

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COGNITION

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  1. COGNITION Definition “process of organizing informationto solve a problem” • thinking, decision making • reasoning, judging, imagining All depend on learning & memory

  2. History of Intelligence:Plato, Galton, Binet “No two persons are born exactlyalike, but each differs from the other bynatural endowments, one being more suitedfor one occasion and the other for another”

  3. Alfred Binet and theIntelligence Quotient (IQ) • First calculate the child’s mental age • corresponds to the age of ability • 9 yr old with a mental age of 7 would struggle • Divide mental age by chronological age IQ = 100 * MA / CA 125 = 100*10/8

  4. Intelligence:What is it? Not a thing, but a concept: “a person’s capacity forgoal-directed behaviour” • Standardization, Reliability, & Validity • Culture-Free Intelligence Tests • Genetic and Environmental Influence • General vs. Specific Abilities

  5. Intelligence Testing:Standardization, Reliability, Validity • Standardization • Uniform administration and performance norms • Reliability • Consistent results; 102 – 53 – 146 in 3 months • Current test reliabilites are >.90 (high reliab.) • Validity • Test measures what it is supposed to measure • Compare IQ score to other measures of IQ • Stanford-Binet vs. Wechsler (correls of .40-.75)

  6. Consistent Group Differencesin Intelligence Testing • Male vs. Female • Males: +45 math, +8 verbal SAT • Black vs. White (Americans) • Blacks: -15 Full IQ, -100 verbal/math SAT • Japanese vs. American • Japanese: <3% popln, >25% science awards

  7. Bias in Intelligence Testing:What is a ‘regatta’? • Are current tests of mental ability unfair to minority groups? • African Americans score 10-15 points lower • Review of evidence produced no clear explanation • Tests typically assume the same educational and cultural experiences • Do the scores reflect a socially disadvantaged environment; they still have predictive validity

  8. Intelligence:Culture Free Testing • Intelligent behaviour varies by situation • South Pacific Islands, Manager, Inner City Can we ever have a test of intelligenceuninfluenced by one’s culture? (basic cognitive abilities) • Initial results have been disappointing • Largely perceptual/spacial tasks • High SES and Europeans still score higher

  9. Source of Intelligence:Genetics vs. Environment Sparks a fierce political debate • Genetics “Do people with similar geneshave similar mental abilities?” • Environment “Do life experiences matter,and if so, how early?”

  10. Six Explanations Why Group Differences are Environmental Cultural differences in education Barriers to disadvantaged groups Adoption studies Infant Picture Test African ancestry Rise & fall of all cultures

  11. Intelligence: GeneralVersus Specific Abilities Should we represent intelligenceby one number or several numbers? Specific • talents: math, music, dance, art, writing, sports • single number would be useless General • general intelligence (g) underlies all abilities • appears to be true with physical ability