The Spanish Speaking World Spanish Class Spencer High School 2011-2012
List of Countries • España • Ceuta y Melilla • Mexico • Estados Unidos • Guatemala • El Salvador • Honduras • Nicaragua • Costa Rica • Panamá • Cuba • La República Dominicana • Puerto Rico • Venezuela • Colombia • Ecuador • Perú • Bolivia • Chile • Argentina • Paraguay • Uruguay • Guinea Ecuatorial • Las Islas Filipinas
Countries InformationSpain • Official Name: Kingdom of Spain • Cities (2010 census): Capital--Madrid (3.3 million). • Climate: Temperate. Summers are hot in the interior and more moderate and cloudy along the coast; winters are cold in interior and partly cloudy and cool along the coast. • About 70% of Spain's student population attends public schools or universities. • Population (National Institute of Statistics (INE), January 1, 2011): 47,150,819. • Languages: Spanish (official) 74%, Catalan-Valencian 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2% • Natural resources: Coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury, pyrites, fluorspar, gypsum, zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin, hydroelectric power.
Countries InformationMexico • Official Name: United Mexican States • Cities: Capital--Mexico City (22 million, estimate for metro area). Other major cities--Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Ciudad Juarez, Tijuana, Acapulco, Merida, Leon, Veracruz. • Climate: Tropical to desert. • Ethnic groups: Indian-Spanish (mestizo) 60%, Indian 30%, Caucasian 9%, other 1%. • Natural resources: Petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber • Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the second most-populous country in Latin America after Portuguese-speaking Brazil. • The average number of years of schooling for the population 15 years old and over
Countries InformationGuatemala • Official Name: Republic of Guatemala • Cities: Capital--Guatemala City (metro area pop. 2.5 million). Other major cities--Quetzaltenango, Escuintla. • Climate: Temperate in highlands; tropical on coasts. • Ethnic groups: Mestizo (mixed Spanish-Indian), indigenous. • Natural resources: Oil, timber, nickel, gold • More than half of Guatemalans are descendants of indigenous Mayan peoples. Westernized Mayans and mestizos (mixed European and indigenous ancestry) are known as Ladinos.
Countries InformationEl Salvador • Official Name: Republic of El Salvador • Cities: Capital--San Salvador (pop. 1.6 million). Other cities--Santa Ana, San Miguel, Soyapango, and Apopa. • Climate: Tropical, distinct wet and dry seasons. • Ethnic groups: Mestizo 90%, indigenous 1%, Caucasian 9%. • Education: Free through high school. Attendance (grades 1-9)--92.4%. Literacy--86.1% nationally; 77.6% in rural areas. • El Salvador's population numbers about 7.2 million. Almost 90% is of mixed Indian and Spanish extraction. About 1% is indigenous; very few Indians have retained their customs and traditions.
Countries InformationHonduras • Official Name: Republic of Honduras • Cities: Capital--Tegucigalpa (1,150,000); San Pedro Sula (800,000-900,000). • Climate: Tropical to subtropical, depending on elevation. • Ethnic groups: 90% mestizo (mixed Amer-Indian and European); others of European, Arab, African, or Asian ancestry; and indigenous Indians. • Natural resources: Arable land, forests, minerals, and fisheries. • While Spanish is the predominant language, some English is spoken along the northern coast and is prevalent on the Caribbean Bay Islands.
Countries InformationNicaragua • Official Name: Republic of Nicaragua • Cities: Capital--Managua (pop. 1.7 million). Other major cities--Bluefields, Chinandega, Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Masaya, Matagalpa, and Rivas. • Climate: Tropical in lowlands; cooler in highlands. • Ethnic groups: Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 69%, white 17%, black 9%, and Amerindian 5%. • Natural resources: Arable land, fresh water, fisheries, gold, timber, hydro and geothermal power potential. • Most Nicaraguans are of both European and indigenous ancestry, and the culture of the country reflects the mixed Ibero-European and indigenous heritage of its people. Only the indigenous of the eastern half of the country remain ethnically distinct and retain their tribal customs and languages
Countries InformationCosta Rica • Official Name: Republic of Costa Rica • Cities: Capital--San Jose (greater metropolitan area pop. 2.1 million, the greater metropolitan area as defined by the Ministry of Planning and Economic Policy includes the cities of Alajuela, Cartago, and Heredia). • Climate: Mild in the central highlands, tropical and subtropical in coastal areas. • Ethnic groups: European and some mestizo 94%, African origin 3%, Chinese 1%, Amerindian 1%, other 1%. • Natural resources: Hydroelectric power, forest products, fisheries products. • Unlike many of their Central American neighbors, present-day Costa Ricans are largely of European rather than mestizo descent; Spain was the primary country of origin.
Countries InformationPanamá • Official Name: Republic of Panama • Cities: Capital--Panama City (1.7 million, metropolitan area). • Climate: Tropical, with average daily rainfall 28 mm. (1 in.) in winter. • Ethnic groups: Mestizo (mixed African, Amerindian, and European ancestry) 70%, Amerindian and mixed (West Indian) 14%, Caucasian 10%, Amerindian 6%. Origins--36.5% African, 37.6% indigenous, and 25.9% Caucasian. • Natural resources: Timber, copper, gold. • Panamanians' culture, customs, and language are predominantly Caribbean Spanish. The majority of the population is ethnically mestizo or mixed Spanish, indigenous, Chinese, and West Indian. Spanish is the official and dominant language; English is a common second language spoken by the West Indians and by many businesspeople and professionals.
Countries InformationCuba • Official Name: Republic of Cuba • Cities: Capital--Havana (pop. 2 million). Other major cities--Santiago de Cuba, Camaguey, Santa Clara, Holguin, Guantanamo, Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Pinar del Rio. • Climate: Tropical, moderated by trade winds; hurricane season (August-November); dry season (November-April); rainy season (May-October). • Ethnic groups: 65% white, 25% mixed, 10% black (official 2002 Cuba census). • Natural resources: Nickel, cobalt, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, oil, natural gas • Cuba is a multiracial society with a population of mainly Spanish, African and Oriental origins.
Countries InformationDominican Republic • Official Name: Dominican Republic • Cities: Capital--Santo Domingo (pop. 2.25 million). Other city--Santiago de los Caballeros (908,230). • Climate: Maritime tropical. • Ethnic groups: Mixed 73%, European 16%, African origin 11%. • Slightly fewer than half of Dominicans live in rural areas; many are small landholders. Haitians form the largest foreign minority group. All religions are tolerated; the state religion is Roman Catholicism. • Dominican Republic is the birth place of the “Merengue” a very popular Latin music style.
Countries InformationPuerto Rico • Official Name: Puerto Rico • Puerto Rico is consider a United State Commonwealth. • Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquen, from Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord". The island is also popularly known in Spanish as "La Isla del Encanto" which means "The Island of Enchantment" in English. • Cities: Capital, San Juan. • Climate: Tropical, with a rainy and dry seasons. • Ethnic groups: White (mostly Spanish origin) 75.8%, Black 12.4%, Asian 0.2%, Amerindian 0.5%, SOR 7.8%, other 3.3% (2010) • Education in Puerto Rico is divided in three levels—Primary (elementary school grades 1–6), Secondary (intermediate and high school grades 7–12), and Higher Level (undergraduate and graduate studies).
Countries InformationVenezuela • Official Name: Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela • Cities: Capital--Caracas (metro. area pop. 3.2 million). Other major cities--Maracaibo, Valencia, Barquisimeto, Maracay, Merida, Ciudad Bolivar. • Climate: Varies from tropical to temperate, depending on elevation. • Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, gold, diamonds, bauxite, other minerals, hydroelectric power. • An estimated 28 million people lived in Venezuela as of 2009. The population growth rate is 1.6% per year, and roughly 50% of Venezuelans are under the age of 25. According to the 2001 census, almost 90% of the population lives in urban areas. Metropolitan Caracas, the country's largest city, has an estimated 3.2 million inhabitants.
Countries InformationColombia • Official Name: Republic of Colombia. • Cities: Capital--Bogota (pop. 8.26 million; 2011). Other major cities include Medellin, Cali, Barranquilla, and Cartagena. • Climate: Tropical on coast and eastern grasslands, cooler in highlands. • Education: Education is free and compulsory for the first 5 years; only 5 years of primary school are offered in many rural areas. • Natural resources: Coal, petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nickel, gold, silver, copper, platinum, emeralds. • Ethnic and cultural diversity in Colombia reflects the indigenous, European (mainly Spanish), and African heritages of its inhabitants. Today, only about 3% of the people identify themselves as indigenous. Afro-Colombians and indigenous groups have faced challenges related to their integration into mainstream Colombian society.
Countries InformationEcuador • Official Name: Republic of Ecuador. • Cities: Capital--Quito (pop. 2 million). Other major cities--Guayaquil (2.28 million). • Climate: Varied, mild year-round in the mountain valleys; hot and humid in coastal and Amazonian jungle lowlands. • Natural resources: Petroleum, fish, shrimp, timber, gold, and copper. • Ecuador's population is ethnically mixed. A large majority of the population is mestizo (mixed Amerindian-Caucasian), followed by smaller percentages of indigenous, Afro-Ecuadorian, and European descendent “criollos”. • Due to an economic crisis in the late 1990s, more than 600,000 Ecuadorians emigrated to the U.S. and Europe from 2000 to 2001.
Countries InformationPerú • Official Name: Republic of Peru. • Major cities: Lima (capital), Arequipa, Chiclayo, Cuzco, Huancayo, Ica, Trujillo, Ayacucho, Piura, Iquitos, and Chimbote. • Climate: Arid and mild in coastal area, temperate to frigid in the Andes, and warm and humid in the jungle lowlands. • Natural resources: Copper, gold, silver, zinc, lead, iron ore, fish, petroleum, natural gas, and forestry. • Peru is the fifth most populous country in Latin America (after Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, and Argentina). Twenty-one cities have a population of 100,000 or more. Rural migration increased the urban population from 35.4% of the total population in 1940 to an estimated 74.6% as of 2005.
Countries InformationBolivia • Official Name: Plurinational State of Bolivia. • Cities (2010 est.): Capital--La Paz (administrative--pop. 840,209); Sucre (constitutional--306,754). Other major cities--Santa Cruz (1,651,436), Cochabamba (618,384), El Alto (960,767). • Climate: Varies with altitude--from humid and tropical to semi-arid and cold. • Natural resources: Hydrocarbons (natural gas, petroleum); minerals (14.1% of GDP--zinc, silver, lead, gold, and iron). • Bolivia is one of the least developed countries in South America. Almost two-thirds of its people, many of whom are subsistence farmers, live in poverty. • According to the 2001 census, Bolivia’s ethnic distribution is estimated to be 55% indigenous, 15% European, and 30% mixed or mestizo .
Countries InformationChile • Official Name: Republic of Chile. • Cities: Capital--Santiago (metropolitan area est. 6.25 million). Other cities--Concepcion-Talcahuano (840,000), Vina del Mar-Valparaiso (800,000), Antofagasta (245,000), Temuco (230,000). • Climate: Arid in north, Mediterranean climate in the central portion, cool and damp in south. • The northern Chilean desert contains great mineral wealth, principally copper, but also gold, potash, and lithium salts. The central area dominates the country in terms of population and agricultural resources. • Chile is a multiethnic society and a majority of the population can claim some European ancestry, mainly Spanish (Castilian, Andalusian, and Basque), but also German, Italian, Irish, French, British, Swiss, and Croatian, in various combinations.
Countries InformationArgentina • Official Name: Argentine Republic. • Cities: Capital—Buenos Aires [Autonomous City of Buenos Aires] (3 Millions habitants), Cordoba, La Plata and Mar del Plata. • Climate: Varied; predominantly temperate, with extremes ranging from subtropical in the north to arid/sub-Antarctic in far south. • Natural resources: Fertile plains (pampas); minerals--lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron, manganese, oil, and uranium. • Argentines are a fusion of diverse national and ethnic groups, with descendants of Italian and Spanish immigrants predominant. Waves of immigrants from many European countries arrived in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. • Argentina is the house of “El Gaucho”, the South America equivalent of North America Texas Cowboy.
Countries InformationParaguay • Official Name: Republic of Paraguay. • Cities: Capital--Asuncion (pop. 518,945). Other cities--Ciudad del Este, Concepcion, Encarnacion, Pedro Juan Caballero, Coronel Oviedo. • Climate: Temperate east of the Paraguay River, semiarid to the west. • Natural resources: Hydropower, timber, iron ore, manganese, limestone. • Ethnically, culturally, and socially, Paraguay has one of the most homogeneous populations in South America. About 95% of the people are of mixed Spanish and Guarani Indian descent. • About 90% of all Paraguayans speak Spanish. Guarani and Spanish are official languages. Brazilians, Argentines, Germans, Arabs, Koreans, Chinese, and Japanese are among those who have settled in Paraguay with Brazilians representing the largest number.
Countries InformationUruguay • Official Name: Oriental Republic of Uruguay. • Cities: Capital--Montevideo (pop. 1.633 million; 2009 est., CIA World Factbook). • Climate: Temperate. • Natural resources: Arable land, pastures, hydroelectric power, granite, marble, fisheries. • Uruguayans share a Spanish linguistic and cultural background, even though about one-quarter of the population is of Italian origin. • Uruguay is distinguished by its high literacy rate, large urban middle class, and relatively even income distribution. The average Uruguayan standard of living compares favorably with that of most other Latin Americans.
Countries InformationEquatorial Guinea • Official Name: Republic of Equatorial Guinea. • Cities: Capital--Malabo. Other cities--Bata (also capital of Littoral province on the mainland). • Climate: Tropical; always warm, humid. The weather alternates between wet and dry seasons over the course of a year. • Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, timber, small, unexploited deposits of gold, manganese, and uranium. • Spanish and French are both official languages, though use of Spanish predominates. The Roman Catholic Church has greatly influenced both religion and education. • The majority of the Equatoguinean people are of Bantu origin. The largest tribe, the Fang, is indigenous to the mainland, but substantial migration to Bioko Island has resulted in Fang dominance over the earlier Bantu inhabitants.
Countries InformationPhilippines • Official Name: Republic of the Philippines. • Major cities (2007 estimate): Capital--Manila (pop. 11.55 million in metropolitan area); other cities--Davao City (1.36 million); Cebu City (0.80 million). • Climate: Tropical, astride typhoon belt. • Natural resources: Copper, nickel, iron, cobalt, silver, gold. • As a result of intermarriage, many Filipinos have some Asian mainland, Spanish, American, Arab, or Indian ancestry. After the mainland Asians, Americans and Spaniards constitute the next largest minorities in the country. • More than 90% of the people are Christian as a result of the nearly 400 years of Spanish and American rule.
Rubric for Latin Countries Project CRITERIA GRADING: Presentation (Total of 10 points) State Title 3 ____ State Name 3 ____ State Name of Country 4 ____ Flag Design and Geography (Total of 10 points) Usage of Colors, Proportions 3 ____ Used during Presentation 3 ____ Show the country in the map 4 ____ Facts (Total of 15 points) State the facts 10 ____ ( 1/each) State the facts in Spanish 5 ____ Total: ____ ( 30 pts.)