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Shakespeare. Shakespeare lived 1564 - 1616 He wrote 38 plays. His plays can be divided into COMEDIES, TRAGEDIES and HISTORIES. Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet are both TRAGEDIES. Hamlet. Hamlet’s death is caused by a “fatal flaw.”

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shakespeare
Shakespeare
  • Shakespeare lived 1564 - 1616
  • He wrote 38 plays.
  • His plays can be divided into COMEDIES, TRAGEDIES and HISTORIES.
  • Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet are both TRAGEDIES.
hamlet
Hamlet
  • Hamlet’s death is caused by a “fatal flaw.”
  • He is indecisive and cannot follow through with his promise to kill his uncle.
romeo and juliet
Romeo and Juliet
  • Romeo and Juliet are DOOMED from the start.
  • It is their FATE to die at the end.
plays
Plays
  • Plays are not intended to be read, they are intended to be watched.
  • It is ALWAYS better to watch a play in a theatre than to read it.
novels
Novels
  • In the 18th Century reading novels started to become a popular form of entertainment.
daniel defoe
Daniel Defoe
  • Daniel Defoe lived 1660 -1731.
  • He wrote Robinson Crusoe in 1719
  • He also wrote Moll Flanders (1722), Colonel Jack (1722), A Journal of the Plague Year (1722) and Roxana (1724).
robinson crusoe

Robinson Crusoe

Daniel Defoe

first english novel
First English Novel?
  • Some people say that Robinson Crusoe is the FIRST ENGLISH NOVEL. It is certainly one of the earliest.
  • It is about a man who is shipwrecked and ends up living on a desert island all alone.
narrative style
Narrative Style
  • Robinson Crusoe is written in the FIRST PERSON, using “I”
  • Crusoe speaks to the reader in a casual manner, as if the reader is his friend to whom he is telling the story of his life.
true story
True Story?
  • In his introduction, Daniel Defoe says that the story of Robinson Crusoe is true.
  • In 18th century people liked the idea of reading true stories of exciting lives.
  • It is partly based on the true story of Alexander Selkirk.
  • But most of the story is fictional.
going to sea
Going to Sea
  • As a young man Robinson Crusoe is desperate to go to sea.
  • “That boy might be happy if he stay at home, but if he goes abroad he will be the most miserable wretch that was ever born.”
made a slave
Made a Slave
  • Robinson is captured and spends two years as a slave.
  • He escapes and takes a boy named Xury with him.
  • Later he gives Xury away as a gift.
in brazil
In Brazil
  • In Brazil Robinson becomes a successful tobacco planter and for three years he lives in Brazil.
  • However when the opportunity to travel to Guinea to buy slaves comes up, he is eager to take it.
slavery
Slavery
  • Though Robinson has been a slave himself, he has no problem with buying slaves.
shipwrecked
Shipwrecked!
  • On the way to Guinea his boat is shipwrecked somewhere in the Caribbean.
  • He is the ONLY survivor
  • He is washed up on an island.
  • He will live there for 28 years.
the ship
The Ship
  • Robinson is able to bring lots of useful things to the island from the wreck of the ship.
journal
Journal
  • For as long as Robinson has a supply of ink, he keeps a journal.
  • The middle part of the novel is extracts from this journal.
  • It is another way that Defoe makes the story seem true.
life on the island
Life on the Island
  • Over the years Robinson builds himself two homes.
  • He grows crops and keeps goats for meat and milk.
  • He makes himself tools and clothes.
  • He explores the island.
slide20
King?
  • Robinson starts to think of himself as a king of the island, even though he is all alone.
  • He likes to think about what he “owns” there.
colonialism
Colonialism
  • CONOLIALISM is the extension of a nation's power over land beyond its borders.
  • This is done by the establishment of COLONIES in which indigenous populations are directly ruled, displaced, or exterminated.
america
America
  • Just before Defoe’s birth the first colonies had been established in America by English settlers.
  • They believed that all the natural resources they found there were now English property.
loneliness
Loneliness
  • Though there are no people, there are some tame animals on the island to keep Robinson company.
  • He teaches a parrot to speak, and this is only “human” voice that Robinson hears.
religion
Religion
  • Over his time on the island, Robinson starts to develop a new relationship with God.
  • The only book he has to read on the island is the bible.
footprint
Footprint
  • One day, after about 11 years alone on the island Robinson discovers a footprint in the sand.
  • He is terrified, believing it to be cannibals or the Devil.
cannibals
Cannibals
  • Cannibals are humans that eat humans.
  • Cannibals come to Robinson’s island to eat their prisoners.
friday
Friday
  • Robinson saves one of the cannibal’s victims.
  • He calls him “Friday” because this was the day that he saved his life.
master and servant
Master and Servant
  • Robinson Crusoe never doubts that he will be Friday’s Master.
  • It does not occur to him that they may simply be friends.
new subjects
New “Subjects”
  • One day the cannibals return, bringing two new victims.
  • Friday and Robinson save them and they turn out to be a Spaniard and Friday’s father.
  • Robinson describes them as his “subjects.”
a ship to england
A ship to England
  • A ship arrives at the island.
  • The crew have MUTINIED.
  • Robinson helps the captain to regain control of his ship and they leave for England.
puritan
Puritan
  • Daniel Defoe was a puritan.
  • He believed that God’s word was best understood by studying the word of the bible.
  • This is why Robinson Crusoe spends time on the island reading the bible.
dissenters
Dissenters
  • English Dissenters were Christians who separated from the Church of England in 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.
  • They opposed State interference in religious matters, and founded their own communities.
  • Daniel Defoe was a dissenter.
the shortest way with dissenters34
The Shortest Way With Dissenters
  • The Shortest Way With Dissenters is a SATIRE on persecutors of dissenters
  • It sold well among the ruling Anglican elite until they realised that it was mocking their own practices.
  • As a result, Defoe was publicly pilloried—his hands and wrists locked in a wooden device—in 1703, and jailed in Newgate Prison.
satire
Satire
  • SATIRE is when a writer says one thing, but means the exact opposite.
  • Often people use satire to make important political points.
slide36
It is cruelty to kill a snake or a toad in cold blood, but the poison of their nature makes it a charity to our neighbours, to destroy those creatures! not for any personal injury received, but for prevention; not for the evil they have done, but the evil they may do! Serpents, toads, vipers, &c., are noxious to the body, and poison the sensitive life: these poison the soul! corrupt our posterity! ensnare our children! destroy the vitals of our happiness, our future felicity! and contaminate the whole mass!
newgate prison
Newgate Prison
  • Defoe was imprisoned at Newgate for writing this satirical pamphlet.
gulliver s travels
Gulliver’s Travels
  • Gulliver’s Travels is another novel about a man who goes on an adventure.