GENOCIDE (ARMENIAN/KOSOVO/RWANDA/ ETHiOPIA ). GENOCIDE. The systematic and widespread extermination or attempted extermination of an entire national, racial, religious, or ethnic group. ARMENIAN GENOCIDE- EARLY MASSACRES.
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GENOCIDE • The systematic and widespread extermination or attempted extermination of an entire national, racial, religious, or ethnic group.
ARMENIAN GENOCIDE- EARLY MASSACRES • Early massacres of the Armenians started in the 19th century under the Sultan Abdul-Hamid II. • One of the worst massacres was during 1894-1896 when the Armenians had a tax protest. This was called the Hamidian Massacres. • During the Hamidian Massacres, 100,000-300,000 Armenians were killed in towns and villages throughout the areas of the Ottoman Empire. • These massacres were publicized in newspapers around the world and in the media. • Later in the genocide, a society known as the Near East Relief raised more than $100 million in assistance to Armenians. • In April 1909, Hamidian supporters in the city of Adana carried out a massacre of Armenians as part of an attempt to reestablish the power of the Sultan. • Almost 30, 000 Armenians were killed and nearly half of the city destroyed. • Culprits of Adana Massacre were never punished.
ARMENIAN GENOCIDE • Spring 1915, leaders of CUP (Committee of Union and Progess) seized the opportunity of a world preoccupied by war to erase the Armenians in the Ottoman lands led by MehmetTalaat, Ismail Enver, and Ahmed Jemal. • April 24, 1915 marked the beginning of the Armenian genocide. • Armenian civil leaders, intellectuals, doctors,businessmen, and artists were rounded up and killed. • Many men were quickly executed while women and children were loaded into trains or forced to march toward to the Syrian desert. • Within months, Euphrates and Tigris rivers become clotted with Armenian bodies. • By 1918 most Armenians were either dead or in the Diaspora. • Mustafa Kemal ordered the remaining Armenians in western Cilicia to be expelled. • By 1923, this civilization was virtually ceased to exist. One and half million Armenians were dead and the Armenian community and personal properties were lost, stolen by others, or deliberately destroyed. • Until today, the Turkish government actively denies the Armenian genocide
KOSOVO • Kosovo was an autonomous province of Serbia in 1974 with the Albanians as the dominant ethnic group. • From the end of the Balkan Wars to World War II, Albanians lived under Serb, where they were suppressed.Theywanted to pressure the Muslim Albanians to leave Kosovo. • In 1974, Kosovo was part of Yugoslavia under Serbian rule. There was a border clash between Yugoslavia and Albania when Yugoslavia broke away from Russia. This resulted in the Yugoslav secret police to intensify the persecution of ethnic Albanians in Kosovo. • In 1990, Slobodan Milosevic was elected President of Serbia which he immediately suspended Kosovo ‘s Albanian police workers. • Hostilities between Kosovo and Milosevic increased.
KOSOVO • I n 1998, A Serb policeman was murdered , prompting a police attack on a village in which one hundred Albanians were killed • March 24, 1999 NATO set up bombing targets in response to Serbia’s Operation Horseshoe where soldiers burned and killed each village they went to. • In three days, 25,000 Albanian Kosovars were fleeing in terror. Serbian border guards took their identification papers and money, destroying any proof they ever existed. • Serbians burned the bodies and dumped them into the well or water supply. They destroyed religious and cultural monuments.. • There were 20,000 rapes and sexual assaults on Albanian women. • Milosevic was trialed and charged with genocide, crimes against humanity, murder, and persecution (including command responsibility for the sexual assaults on Kosovo Albanian women and the wanton destruction of religious sites) in Kosovo.
RWANDA • Long history of tension between majority Hutu and minority Tutsi (even though both are very similar to one another) • The genocide started when Rwandan President ‘s Juvenal Habyarimana, a Hutu, plane was shot down above Kigali airport on April 6, 1994. • This initiated a campaign of retribution and the start of the slaughter of Tutsi and Hutu. • Hutu civilians were forced to murder their Tutsi neighbours by military personnel. • Participants were often given incentives, such as money or food, and some were even told they could appropriate the land of the Tutsis they killed. • In July, the Rwanda Patriotic Front caputured Kigali and the government collapsed. • Two million Hutus fled to Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo) • Even after the killings in Rwanda, disputes between the Hutu and Tutsi continued.
RWANDA STATISTICS • Over the course of 100 days from April 6 to July 16 2004, an estimated 800,000 to 1 million Tutsis and some moderate Hutus were slaughtered in the Rwandan genocide.1 A recent report has estimated the number to be close to 2 million.2 • There are between 300,000 to 400,000 survivors of the genocide • Between 250,000 and 500,000 women were raped during the 100 days of genocide.5 Up to 20,000 children were born to women as a result of rape.6 • More than 67% of women who were raped in 1994 during the genocide were infected with HIV and AIDS.7 In many cases, this resulted from a systematic and planned use of rape by HIV+ men as a weapon of genocide.8 • 40,000 survivors are still without shelter, many whose homes were destroyed in the genocide.13 • 75,000 of survivors were orphaned as a result of the genocide.11 • Nearly 100,000 survivors are aged between 14 and 21, of which 60,000 are categorized as very vulnerable.10
ETHIOPIA • Ethiopia was the last sovereignty to use genocide as an attempt to get rid of its minority • On December 13, 2003 marked the killings of 400 Anuak tribe by uniformed Ethiopian soldiers. • It took place in Gambella, the capital of the state of Gambella in remote western Ethiopia, which shares a long border with Sudan. • Eyewitnesses report that the soldiers were joined by dozens of members of the Amara, Oromo and Tigray tribes who were seen chopping and stabbing Anuak with machetes. • Anuak people have fled to the United States , Kenya, and Sudan in fear of ethnic cleansing. • Ethiopian government denies the claim of killing the Anuak.
WHAT COUNTRY IS THIS? RWANDA
WHAT COUNTRY IS THIS? KOSOVO
WHAT COUNTRY IS THIS? ETHIOPIA
WHAT COUNTRY IS THIS? ARMENIA
RESOURCES • http://www.thewe.cc/thewe_/images_5/___/genocide_/rwanda_bodies_1994.jpe (picture) • http://scrapetv.com/News/News%20Pages/usa/images-3/rwanda-genocide-bodies.jpg (picture) • http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/7823/armenians4.jpg (picture) • http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/genocide (web) • http://media.photobucket.com/image/stop%20genocide/tibetansfree/STOP_GENOCIDE250.jpg (picture) • Cohan, Sara. A Brief History of the Armenian Genocide. Virginia: National Science Teachers Association, 2005. 333-337. 7. http://oybay.files.wordpress.com/2007/10/armenian_genocide_440.jpg (picture) 8. http://samlapena.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/armenian_genocide3.jpg (picture) 9. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kv.html (article) 10. http://www.enotes.com/genocide-encyclopedia/kosovo (article) 11. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/1288230.stm (article) 12. http://www.worldvision.ca/ContentArchives/content-stories/Pages/rwandafactsheet.aspx (article) 13. http://www.survivors-fund.org.uk/resources/history/statistics.php(article) 14. http://nhs.needham.k12.ma.us/cur/baker_00/baker_modern/baker_nd_cs_p6/young_hutu_boy.jpg (picture) 15. http://www.inthesetimes.com/article/390/ethiopian_genocide/(article) 16. http://www.anuakjustice.org/images2/front_page_photo1.jpg (picture) 17. http://www.prsp-watch.de/countries/rwanda.gif (picture) 18. http://www.europartnersearch.net/countries/Images/46-map.gif (picture)