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European State Consolidation in the 17 th & 18 th Century. AP EURO- Chapter 13 Age of Absolutism & Constitutionalism in Western Europe. The Netherlands (The Dutch Republic). The Dutch Republic emerged as an independent nation in the mid 1500’s.

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european state consolidation in the 17 th 18 th century

European State Consolidation in the 17th & 18th Century

AP EURO- Chapter 13

Age of Absolutism & Constitutionalism in Western Europe

the netherlands the dutch republic
The Netherlands (The Dutch Republic)
  • The Dutch Republic emerged as an independent nation in the mid 1500’s
the netherlands the dutch republic 17 th 18 th centuries
The Netherlands (The Dutch Republic 17th & 18th Centuries)
  • Political organization:
  • 1. Not governed by absolute monarch
  • 2. Political power in hands of wealthy merchants
  • 3. 7 Independent provinces negotiated with Central government
the dutch republic
The Dutch Republic
  • Europe’s leading commercial power during the 17th century
  • 1. Dutch fleet largest in the world
  • 2. Overseas commercial empire
  • 3. Large urban population
dutch republic commercial exports
Dutch Republic – Commercial Exports
  • 1. Farming (beef, fish, dairy, tulips)
  • 2. Ship building
  • 3. Textile production
  • Johannes Vermeer- “the Lacemaker”-1669
economic prosperity in the netherlands dutch republic
Economic Prosperity in the Netherlands (Dutch Republic)
  • Dutch replaced the Italians as the “bankers” of Europe
  • Amsterdam Exchange Bank established 1609
  • Johannes Vermeer- “Lady with her Maidservant” ->
  • Economic Decline- 18th century
art during the dutch golden age
Art During the Dutch Golden Age
  • Johannes Vermeer “Girl with a Pearl Earring”- 1665-1666
17 th 18 th century
17th & 18th Century
  • England, France, Austria, Prussia, Russia Established/Maintained:
  • 1. Strong Monarchies
  • 2. Standing armies
  • 3.Efficient tax structures
  • 4. Large Bureaucracies (appointed govt. officials)
  • 5. the Loyalty of their nobility
2 models of government emerged
1. Parliamentary Monarchy:

England

Parliament & Monarch work together

Parliament is summoned by King

2. Political Absolutism:

France

Monarch should have unlimited power

2 Models of Government Emerged:
in england
In England,
  • Political model: Parliamentary Monarchy
  • Parliament was dominated by landowners & nobles
  • 17th & 18th century “Age of Aristocracy”
1 james i ruled 1603 1625
1. James I (ruled:1603-1625)
  • Believed in the “Divine Right of Kings”
  • And Rarely called on Parliament
king james i of england
King James I of England

“ Kings are not only God’s lieutenants upon earth, and sit on God’s throne, but even by God himself they are called gods.”

- King James I

the duke of buckingham
The Duke Of Buckingham
  • James I’s Favorite noble
  • Sold noble titles to highest bidders
  • The Nobility was outraged!
james i
James I
  • Negotiated Peace with Spain in 1604
  • Parliament not happy
  • 1624 England went to war with Spain (again)
  • Needed $ for war…
charles i ruled 1625 1649
Charles I ( Ruled 1625-1649)
  • Son of James I - Became King 1625
  • Raised taxes without Parliament permission
  • “Forced Loan” taximposed on English property owners
  • Imprisoned those who refused to pay
parliament s response 1628
Parliament’s Response 1628:
  • Willing to approve $ for king ONLY if he agreed to the
  • Petition of Right:
  • 1. No forced loans –”without consent by act of Parliament”
  • 2. No imprisonment w/o due cause
  • 3. No quartering of troops in private homes
king charles i
King Charles I
  • Agreed to petition…
  • But then dissolved the Parliament in 1629
the short parliament
The Short Parliament
  • King Charles forced to call on Parliament in 1640 (April – May)
  • Because he Needed $ for war against Scotland
parliament
Parliament
  • Refused to give funds until King Charles I addressed a long list of grievances
  • As a result…
  • King Charles I dissolved Parliament again!
long parliament 1640 1660
Long Parliament (1640-1660)
  • Scots defeated English (summer 1640)
  • King Charles I was forced to call on Parliament
  • How will members of Parliament react to the king?
english civil war began when 1642 1646
English Civil War Began When… (1642-1646)
  • Parliament overthrew King Charles I
  • King’s Supporters= Cavaliers
  • Parliamentary Opposition= roundheads
parliament victorious
Parliament Victorious
  • 1. Formed an Alliance w/ Scotland to overthrow King Charles I
  • 2. Oliver Cromwell led Parliament army
charles i was defeated
Charles I Was Defeated!
  • and Executed in 1649
  • 1619-1660 England became :
  • A Puritan Republic
  • <- Oliver Cromwell emerged as political ruler / new military dictator
oliver cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
  • Conquered Scotland & Ireland
  • Disbanded Parliament
  • Proclaimed himself “Lord Protector”
  • Supported by army
oliver cromwell s strict puritanical moral code
Oliver Cromwell’s Strict Puritanical Moral Code:
  • Prohibited:
  • Dancing, gambling, theatre going, alcohol, sports, freedom of the press
  • People disliked Cromwell’s strict, harsh, Puritanical rule 
oliver cromwell died in 1658
Oliver Cromwell died in 1658
  • English people restored the monarchy
  • Charles II became King 1660 _
  • His Father was Charles I
king charles ii ruled 1660 1685
King Charles II (ruled: 1660-1685)
  • “Stuart Restoration”
  • Leaned lessons from past Kings- don’t mess with Parliament!
  • Tolerant of religious groups,but favored Catholicism
the popish plot 1678
The Popish Plot, 1678
  • Titus Oates swore before a court…
  • That Jesuits were planning to kill King Charles II!!
  • And replace him with his Catholic Brother, James !
accusation a lie however
Accusation A Lie, However…
  • 1. Stirred up anti-Catholic sentiments
  • 2. Parliament believed Oates
  • 3. Innocent people tried & executed for treason
as a result
As A Result,
  • Catholics were banned from Parliament in1678
  • Ironically, Charles II converted to Catholicism on his deathbed (1685)
james ii r 1685 1688
James II (R. 1685-1688)
  • Brother of Charles II
  • Unpopular monarch
  • 1. Catholic = controversial
  • Why?
  • 2. Absolute ruler
james ii repealed the
James II Repealed the
  • Test Act – required all civil & military officials of the crown to swear an oath against the doctrine of Transubstantiation
monarch vs parliament again
Monarch vs. Parliament (again)
  • Parliament was upset, so…
  • James II dissolved Parliament!!
  • Appointed Catholics to high positions in court, army.
english people fed up with political instability
English People Fed Up With Political Instability
  • People wanted James II ‘s Protestant Daughter Mary to succeed him…
  • But then James II HAD A SON…
the end of james ii s reign
The End of James II’S Reign
  • An army was sent to depose him…
  • James II forced to flee -to France
  • 1689 Parliament Proclaimed :
  • Mary II & William III King & Queen
  • “Glorious Revolution” – a bloodless event.
parliamentary monarchy england
Parliamentary Monarchy- England

Power struggles between King & Parliament 17TH Century.

1. James I (1603), Charles I (1625)

2. Oliver Cromwell ‘s Puritan Republic (deviation from Monarchy (1619-1660)

3. Charles II (1660), James II (1685)

4. “Glorious Revolution” – William & Mary, 1689

william mary established
William & Mary Established
  • Bill of Rights
  • 1. Limited powers of monarchy
  • 2. Guaranteed civil liberties for privileged
  • 3. Monarchs subject to law
  • 4. Monarchs would rule by consent of parliament
  • 5. Prohibited Catholics from occupying English Throne
making connections
Making Connections…
  • College of William & Mary
  • Founded 1693 in Williamsburg, Virginia (U.S.A.)
  • Second oldest University in U.S.A
  • Educated 3 Future Presidents :Thomas Jefferson, John Tyler & James Monroe
in france
In France…
  • French culture & political power dominated Europe in the 18th century
political absolutism in france
Political Absolutism in France
  • King had absolute power
  • “French Absolutism”
louis xiv of france
Louis XIV of France
  • Became King of France 1643
  • At age 4!
  • Mother Anne of Austria served as regent
anne of austria relied on
Anne of Austria Relied On…
  • Italian Cardinal Jules Mazarin to lead govt.
  • Until Louis was old enough to rule
  • Both seen as “outsiders” by French
in 1648 nobles protested
In 1648 Nobles protested
  • rising taxes
  • Rebelled against the crown
  • Broke into 9 year old Louis’ bedroom!
  • Revolt = The Fronde
  • The FRONDE meant to limit the power of the monarch, not overthrow
louis xiv 1661
Louis XIV - 1661
  • Became King (officially) at age 23
  • Ruled through Councils
  • Favored “new nobles”
  • “new nobles” owed him the favor, and were loyal
the sun king louis xiv
“The Sun King”- Louis XIV
  • “L’etat Ces’t Moi!”
  • “I am the State”
  • Demonstrated his wealth, power, and authority
versailles palace
Versailles Palace
  • Louis XVI ‘s grand display of Kingship
  • Built between 1676-1708
  • In Outskirts of Paris
  • King Louis XIV understood the impact of visual imagery & public image
versailles
Versailles
  • Largest secular structure in Europe
  • Wanted to create the grandest, most luxurious Palace in all of Europe
political control
Political Control…
  • Versailles Housed thousands of Nobles
  • They paid “rent” to live at palace
  • Elaborate “court” etiquette evolved
  • “the place to be & be seen”
a day at court of versailles
A Day at Court of Versailles…
  • 8:30am King awakens
  • 10:00am King leads procession to Mass
  • 11:00am Council Meeting
  • 1:00pm Dinner
  • 2:00pm Hunting or Promenade
  • 6:00pm Social Gathering
  • 10:00pm Supper
  • 11:30 King Retires
king louis xiv s economic policies
King Louis XIV’s Economic Policies
  • Appointed Jean Baptiste Colbert as Controller General of Finances:
  • 1.Promoted silk & tapestry industry
  • 2. Areas free of internal tariff (tax)to enhance trade
  • 3.Expanded the military
  • 4.Improved roads/canals
  • 5. Supported French Trade in North America
religious policies
Religious Policies
  • Considered religious unity a necessity
  • “One King, One Faith, One Law”
  • Revoked the Edict of Nantes
  • Campaigned against Huguenots -Many left France
  • As a result , France lost skilled laborers, business leaders
french arts sciences
French Arts & Sciences
  • King Louis XIV Supported writers such as
  • 1. Racine = tragedies
  • 2. Moliere= comedies
  • Established academies
  • Employed artists, artisans, etc. during the construction of Versailles
absolutism in eastern europe
Absolutism in Eastern Europe
  • Austria, Prussia, Russia gained prestige
  • Characteristics Eastern Europe:
  • 1. Fewer towns
  • 2. Almost no middle class
  • 3. Economy mostly agrarian (serfs)
  • 4. Monarchs had to work around landed aristocracy
russia
Russia
  • Seen as “backward”
  • Culturally isolated form rest of Europe
  • located on periphery
  • Did not send ambassadors to Western Europe prior to 1673
peter the great ruled 1682 1725
Peter the Great (ruled:1682-1725)
  • 1682 ascended to the throne at age 10
  • He and brother Ivan V named
  • “co-rulers”
peter the great s
Peter the Great’s
  • sister Sophia (yes, that’s really her)
  • Was named “regent”
  • Wanted to rule Russia and was Overthrown in 1689
peter the great
Peter the Great
  • Became King in1689 at age 17
  • He was 7ft. Tall!
  • “Shared” crown with Ivan (his brother) until he died 1696
modernization
Modernization
  • Peter became obsessed with Western Europe
  • They considered him “crude”, “Backwards”
  • Peter determined to “modernize” Russia
peter s the great
Peter’s The Great
  • Traveled extensively throughout Western Europe and learned form what he saw
  • Inspected shipyards, docks, in England & Netherlands
  • Decided to built his version of a “modern city”
established st petersburg
Established St. Petersburg
  • A “modern” city in Russia 1703
  • Built under “horrible conditions” -“the city of bones”
  • Became a Major sea port
  • With Access to Baltic sea/trade
  • 1712 became Russian capital
menshikov palace
Menshikov Palace
  • Inspired by
  • Western European architecture & art
peter the great urged
Peter the Great Urged
  • The Boyars – old nobility who supported traditional culture
  • To adopt “Western European Dress”
  • And to do away with “old ways”
  • Example: beards!
western policies
“Western Policies”
  • 1. Conscription- drafted 130,000 soldiers
  • 2. Developed Navy – constructed Baltic fleet
  • 3. Established:
  • School of Navigation & Math, School of Medicine, School of Engineering, School of Science
  • 4. Re-organized government
  • 5. Established St. Petersburg, “Modern City”
peter s son aleksei
Peter’s Son Aleksei
  • Peter was jealous of his own son!
  • He was convinced his son wanted to overthrow him!
  • Personally interrogated Aleksei
  • Aleksei condemned to death
  • Son “mysteriously died” 1718
peter and the russian orthodox church
Peter and the Russian Orthodox Church
  • Abolished position of Patriarch (head of church)
  • Establishes Holy Synod -several bishops led by…
  • Procurator General
peter the great1
Peter the Great
  • Died 1725
  • Left no clear line of succession
  • 30 year power struggle began…
absolutism in austria
Absolutism in Austria
  • 1. The Habsburg Family Empire
  • Ruled by title of King, archduke, duke
  • Ruled since the 1400’s
  • Domains geographically, ethnically diverse
  • Traditionally Catholic
absolutism in prussia
Absolutism in Prussia
  • 2. The Hohenzollerns family
  • Ruled Brandenberg –Prussia since 1417
  • Diverse population and geographically seperated