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GHG Emission and R&D Singapore. Mar 2011. OUTLINE. National Circumstances GHG Emissions Policy Coordination R&D and Innovation. Inter-agency working group (IAWG) set up to draft Second NC Submitted to UNFCCC on 12 Nov 2010

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National Circumstances

GHG Emissions

Policy Coordination

R&D and Innovation

singapore s second national communication

Inter-agency working group (IAWG) set up to draft Second NC

  • Submitted to UNFCCC on 12 Nov 2010
  • Reported 2000* Greenhouse gas inventory figures (both sectoral and reference)
  • Used revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for GHG Inventory

Singapore’s Second National Communication

Singapore Second NC

* COP decision 17/CP.8, non-Annex I Parties shall estimate national GHG inventories for the year 2000 for the Second NC


Small, densely populated urban city-state, with land area of about 700 km2

Population of ~ 5 million

Alternative-energy disadvantaged

Limited scope for renewables

Dependence on imported fossil fuels

National Circumstances


National Circumstances

  • Singapore’s economic success and high per capita GDP tend to obscure the limitations faced as a small country.
  • Singapore emits < 0.2% of the global total emission of carbon dioxide.
  • Even if it were possible to stop all carbon emissions here, it would not make a difference if others do nothing.

National Circumstances

  • Singapore’s small population and physical size make comparisons of Singapore and its emissions on a per capita basis with other countries potentially unfair.
  • Singapore is what the UNFCCC recognises as an alternative energy disadvantaged country, dependent on fossil fuels.
  • Very few options in pursuing renewable energy sources.

National Circumstances

  • Despite the unique circumstances, Singapore has pledged to reduce emissions by 16% below BAU by 2020, contingent on a legally binding agreement in which all countries implement their commitments in good faith.
  • Tough target - there will be economic and social costs to pay.
policy coordination
Policy Coordination
  • Inter-Ministerial Committee on Climate Change headed by Senior Minister
    • Mitigation: To formulate and implement domestic mitigation measures (MTI & MOF)
    • Negotiations: To formulate international negotiation strategies (MFA)
    • Resilience: To formulate adaptation responses (MEWR & MND)
  • National Climate Change Secretariat under the PM Office
    • Overall climate change policy coordination under the Prime Minister’s Office

Singapore’s GHG Inventory

  • The most significant GHG emitted in Singapore is CO2
    • Primarily produced by burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity used by the industry, building, household and transport sectors
    • IPCC Guidelines and default emission factors are used to compute GHG emissions
    • GHG emissions from agriculture, land-use change and forestry sectors are negligible
      • Small agricultural sector focuses mainly on produce, e.g. eggs, fish and vegetables for local consumption to supplement imports
      • Some orchids, ornamental fish grown and reared for export
    • Land use change is insignificant as much of the country has been developed, except for the central forest area which is a protected water catchment
ghg emissions12

Singapore’s Total Emissions For the Year 2000

GHG Emissions

Methodology Used : Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories


R&D and Innovation


clean alternative energy sources have been the focus.

Clean Energy Programme Office (CEPO)

The Clean Energy Programme Office focus on cluster development, technology development and internationalisation, with an emphasis on solar energy. S$50 million Clean Energy Research Programme (CERP) aims to kick start R&D.

Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS)

With an investment of S$130 million over five years, this institute will conduct world-class industry-oriented research and development and train specialist manpower for the solar energy sector.


Conversion of Diesel Commercial Vehicles to Run on CNG

CNG Buses and Taxis

Energy Audit of Common Services in Public Housing

R&D and Innovation


S$50 million set aside over 5-year period for a new Research Fund for the Built Environment


S$20 million Innovation for Environmental Sustainability (IES) Fund provides financial grants for companies to test-bed innovative technologies which contribute to environmental sustainability.

Energy Projects under IES Fund


R&D and Innovation


S$20 million Solar Capability Scheme (SCS) was launched in 2008 to enhance capabilities among system integrators and developers of solar energy systems.

S$17 million Clean Energy Research & Testbedding (CERT) programme allows facilities and buildings to be used as “field laboratory” for clean energy technologies, prior commercialisation

  • SINERGY Centre@ Jurong Island
  • Distributed Energy Systems and Microgrid Test Facilities
  • Research & Development Facilities