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Events Leading to Equality. 28.1 & 28.3. Why Demands for Equality Grew. 1. African Americans migrated North after the Civil War Some become prominent, Gain political power & influence

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why demands for equality grew
Why Demands for Equality Grew

1. African Americans migrated North after the Civil War

Some become prominent, Gain political power & influence

2. Roosevelt’s New Deal: Tried to gain African American support through votes. Many worked for federal gov. through new programs

3. WWII: African Americans gained employment, Holocaust brings up racial issues in U.S.

4. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: challenged segregation in court

Thurgood Marshall- “Mr. Civil Rights” leads Legal Defense Fund, Oliver Hill- teamed w/ Marshall

plessy v ferguson
Plessyv. Ferguson
  • When? May 18, 1896
  • What? Allowed separate but equal facilities
  • Who?Homer Plessy
  • Problem? Homer Plessy was jailed for sitting in a white railway car instead of a black car. He argued that he had equal protection of laws which was violated by segregating him.
  • Outcome? The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation in the Plessy case stating that the state had the right to have separate facilities as long as they were equal.
brown vs board of education
Brown vs. Board of Education
  • Topeka, Kansas
  • 1954
  • What? Suit filed to fight Plessy vs. Ferguson, case for separate but equal
  • Who? Oliver Brown, daughter Linda Brown
  • Problem? Daughter walked through a train yard to school. A white school was around the corner
  • Solution? Supreme Court Rules separate is not equal. It’s unconstitutional. Must desegregate schools.
  • Outcome? Harsh reactions in South call for government soldiers to assist 9 students to enter school. Congress members write the Southern Manifesto.
emmett till
Emmett Till
  • When? August 1955
  • What? African American teen brutally murdered in Mississippi
  • Who?14 year old boy from Chicago
  • Problem?Chicago born, Emmett Till was visiting his relatives in Mississippi. He entered a store and upon leaving said, “Bye baby” to a white woman. He was abducted from his uncle’s home and murdered.
  • Outcome?Caucasian men that were suspects were acquitted. They later admitted to the murder. The event was highly publicized in the north bringing attention to the issues faced by African Americans.
montgomery bus boycott
Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • Dec. 1955- 1956
  • What? Rosa Parks sits on a segregated bus, refuses to give up seat to a white man
  • Who? Rosa Parks
  • Problem? Her arrest causes a bus boycott by African Americans.
  • Solution? Boycott lasts a year. The company refused to change.
  • Outcome? Supreme Court ruled bus segregation is unconstitutional.
central high school integration
Central High School Integration
  • Sept. 1957
  • What? 9 black students are to integrate Central High in Arkansas
  • Who? Little Rock Nine
  • Problem? Segregationists block the entrance to the school. Governor OrvalFaubus sends the National Guard to support the segregationists
  • Solution? September 24, 1957 President Eisenhower sends 101st Airborne to escort students to school
  • Outcome? The school integrates
greensboro sit in
Greensboro Sit-In
  • When? Feb. 1, 1960
  • What? Sit-in at a lunch counter at Woolworth’s
  • Who? Greensboro Four
  • Problems? African Americans sat at a segregated lunch counter and ordered food. They were denied service, but didn’t move.
  • Solution? The store owner closed an hour early.
  • Outcome? A key event that led to more sit-ins at museums, libraries, churches and public pools. There was a more consolidated effort by young blacks which had a political impact.
malcolm x black separatism
Malcolm X- Black Separatism
  • When?May 19, 1925
  • What? Outspoken leader and supporter of black separatism
  • Who?Born Malcolm Little
  • Problem?His family was poor and he was arrested for burglary and went to prison. He became involved in the Nation of Islam and changed his last name to X. He believed in black supremacy, self-reliance and that the white man was the devil.
  • Solution? He preached that violence might be needed for change to happen. “By any means necessary.”
  • Outcome? He had a falling out with the NOI leader and traveled with bodyguards. He went to Mecca and upon returning changed his beliefs about civil rights. He started the Organization of Afro-American Unity. His legacy is one of black self-respect, self-reliance and economic improvement.
freedom rides
Freedom Rides
  • When?May 4, 1961 through the summer
  • What? This was a non violent demonstration to test the results of the Supreme Court ruling that transportation should be desegregated.
  • Who?Black and white protestors
  • Problem? Bus terminals were supposed to be desegregated. Upon reaching S.C., riders were attacked and their bus was burned.

Outcome?In Alabama, riders were attacked and the bus was fire bombed. Attorney General Robert Kennedy sent U.S. marshals to ensure the safety of the riders. The governor declared martial law and called in the National Guard.

ole miss integration
“Ole Miss” integration
  • When?Oct. 1, 1962
  • What? The University of Mississippi was an all white institution.
  • Who?James Meredith
  • Problem? The governor was a segregationist and was against the integration of the school. There was a riot that required the National Guard to break it up. Hundreds were injured and two died.
  • Solution?James Meredith was escorted by U.S. marshals.
  • Outcome? Meredith represented hope for blacks in the area and many began to enroll at schools around the nation.
birmingham march
Birmingham March
  • When?May 1963
  • What? Birmingham was one of the most segregated cities in the country.
  • Who?“Bull” Connor
  • Problem?A march was organized by SCLC under the direction of MLK. The police department, under the direction of “Bull” Connor used brutal tactics to end the march. High pressure water hoses, attack dogs and beatings were employed to stop protestors.
  • Outcome? The protest shut down the city and drew media attention. The cruelty viewed on television stunned many and spread awareness of the oppression and harsh treatment suffered by African Americans. It pushed many to act on behalf of the civil rights movement.
march on washington
March on Washington
  • When?Aug. 28, 1963
  • What? Peaceful demonstration
  • Who?250,00 people, MLK gave his speech
  • Problem?Wanted to press for the passage of a civil rights bill in Congress that would integrate schools, end job discrimination, and establish a job training program.
  • Outcome? Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. gave his “I Have a Dream” speech at the Lincoln Memorial. It was televised and heard by millions.
civil rights act 1964
Civil Rights Act 1964
  • Proposed in 1963 by Kennedy
  • Law banned discrimination due to race, national origin, religion, gender
  • Protects rights of all people in seeking a job or home
  • After the march, Kennedy called on Congress to pass the civil rights legislation.
  • The bill was debated in the Senate and was passed after a 75 day filibuster.
  • LBJ signed it into law
  • Enforcement of the act led to violence and demonstrations.
  • It was enacted July 2, 1964
selma alabama
Selma, Alabama

Solution? A second march was attempted on March 9th, led by Martin Luther King, Jr. He violated a court order forbidding the March.

Outcome? On March 15th President Johnson asked Congress to pass the Voting Rights Act. He told Governor Wallace that the federal government would protect the marchers with the National Guard. The final march was on March 21st.

  • When? March 7, 1965
  • What? This was a protest march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama
  • Who? 500 participants
  • Problem? Wanted to draw attention to the denial of voting rights experienced by blacks. Governor George Wallace issued an order forbidding the demonstration. Demonstrators were attacked with tear gas, bullwhips, cattle prods, and chains. The day was called “Bloody Sunday.”
voting rights act 1965
Voting Rights Act 1965
  • When?Aug. 6, 1965
  • What? Outlawed poll taxes and literacy tests that prevented voting by blacks.
  • Who?President Johnson signed it
  • Problem? In 1960, only 5% of Mississippi’s half million blacks were registered to vote.

Outcome? Federal examiners were sent to register black voters where it was determined that local registrars had been obstructive. By the end of 1965, nearly a quarter of a million new black voters had registered.

assassination of malcolm x
Assassination of Malcolm X
  • When? Feb. 21, 1965
  • What? Murdered by three black Muslims
  • Who?Malcolm X
  • Problem?The leader of the Nation of Islam believed that Malcolm X was too strong of a leader. Malcolm X was murdered while giving a speech.
  • Outcome? Three men were convicted of his murder: Hayer, Butler and Johnson. Mob violence was a direct result of the assassination.
watts riots
Watts Riots
  • When?Aug. 1965
  • What?Riots occurred in Los Angeles over the arrest of a young black man, due to poor race relations.
  • Who?Marquette Frye
  • Problem? He was charged with a DUI and an angry mob attacked police. Rioting started and lasted into the next day.
  • Outcome? Snipers opened fire, buildings were burned, businesses were looted. Violence lasted 5 days.
  • Thousands were injured and 34 people died. It strained race relations further and cancelled out improvements that had been made.
black panther party
Black Panther Party
  • When?Oct. 1966
  • What? A black extremist organization founded in Oakland, CA. Believed in Black Power.
  • Who?Huey Newton & Bobby Seal
  • Problem?It advocated the use of violence and self defense of minority communities. Wanted economic, political and social equality in the form of separate communities.
  • Outcome? It increased the racial tension between whites and blacks.
assassination dr martin luther king jr
Assassination-Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
  • When?April 4, 1968
  • What? Dr. King was assassinated at the Lorraine Hotel in Memphis, TN
  • Who?James Earl Ray
  • Problem?Dr. King was a prominent civil rights activist that promoted civil disobedience. He was shot and wounded on his balcony. Dr. King was pronounced dead at the hospital.
  • Outcome? Dr. King’s death sparked several riots.

The FBI investigated the crime. James Earl Ray was arrested and convicted of the crime.