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Second Revision Workshop. IPG, Week 22. Workshop Aims. Continue to draw connections across the module Provoke refinements in your revision strategies Think through the remaining topics – some key points Discuss strategies in the exam room. The Exam. When? Wednesday 4 June, 9.30am

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workshop aims
Workshop Aims
  • Continue to draw connections across the module
  • Provoke refinements in your revision strategies
  • Think through the remaining topics – some key points
  • Discuss strategies in the exam room

The Exam

When? Wednesday 4 June, 9.30am

Where? F107, Engineering

revision reminders
Revision Reminders
  • Material for revision includes: revision notes; lecture notes; core readings; seminar questions and notes; additional readings from module handbook; notes written as essay preparation; class essay content, additional material
  • Acquire, consolidate, organize material, then practice moulding it to particular questions
  • You need to cite authors as you write in exams: just a surname, no bibliography required, paraphrasing
  • Be as legible as you can, practice legible speed-writing
  • Any questions?
topic by topic revision 1
Topic by Topic Revision 1
  • Work in small groups on one of the following topics:

South Africa; India; Islam; Ireland; Global Capitalism

  • Identify which module concepts are particularly relevant (see next 3 slides). Then try to come up with three or four bullet points that reflect major issues/learning points for each week of this topic that you would need to keep in mind when revising it. Can you think of any authors/studies relevant to this topic?
  • You won’t remember everything – don’t worry, it’s not a test; it’s an opportunity.
key module concepts
Key Module Concepts
  • Sex (biological, fixed); Gender (social and cultural, constructed, mutable/ changeable/transformable); Gender Equality/Inequality
  • Feminisms; Post-feminism; women’s movement; agency; resistance
  • Gender divisions of labour, resources, opportunities, status; gender pay gap; horizontal and vertical gender segregation, double burden, triple shift, sexual harassment; labour market discrimination; beauty premium; symbolic gender roles - material gender roles; dominant discourses/narratives
  • Gendered identities/ subjectivities; performing gender identities; femininities / masculinities (plural both within contexts and between them, but with striking commonalities eg what’s expected of men and women in nationalism); crisis in masculinity; patriarchal premium; hyper masculinity; hyper femininity
  • Hidden curriculum; self-worth theory; laddishness; new sexual contract; post-feminist masquerade
key module concepts continued
Key Module Concepts Continued
  • Sexuality; heterosexism; compulsory heterosexuality; essentialism; social constructionism; nuclear family; diversity of family forms; symmetrical family; sexualisation of work; homophobia; sexual violence; gendered double standards  
  • State Socialism and Post-Socialism; patriarchal socialism; Soviet Union/USSR and Russian Federation; People’s Republic of China; collectivization; communes; collective ownership of means of production; proletariat; bourgeoisie; surplus value; socialization of reproductive work; son-preference; one-child policy, reproductive rights; sexual rights; perestroika; glasnost; Maoism; Confucianism; male-dominated peasantry; state propaganda; capitalism
  • Orientalism - the weaving into ‘knowledge’ of the idea that the west is innately superior to the east – ‘othering’; ‘legitimation’ of colonialism
  • Nationalism; nation-building; anti-natalist state; pro-natalist state; biological and cultural reproduction of nation; public sphere - private sphere/domestic sphere
key module concepts continued1
Key Module Concepts Continued
  • Apartheid and Post-Apartheid; migrant labour system; anti-apartheid movement; institutionalised racism; one person one vote; intersections of gender, ‘race; and class; pass laws; bantustans; anti-apartheid movement; ANC; PAC; COSATU; UDF; Nationalist Party; white separatist; petty apartheid; sexual violence; gender-based violence; feminization of poverty
  • Colonialism & Imperialism (India, Ireland); welfarism; independence movements; partition; modernity/modernisation
  • Religious fundamentalism; hindutva; communalism; Islamic fundamentalism; Catholic fundamentalism?; unveiling; reveiling; Islamic Revolution; feminist theology; religious/secular feminism
  • Global capitalism; old international division of labour; new international division of labour; ISI; EOI; unionization; labour movement; runaway shops; NICs; Fair-trade; Ethical trade; contradictory effects on women’s status; nimble fingers; labour behind the label; codes of conduct; fairwashing
strategies in the exam room
Strategies in the Exam Room
  • Scenario 1: Your time management has gone awry and there’s 10 minutes left but you’re only half way through your answer to the last question.
  • What do you do now, and what could you have done earlier?
  • Scenario 2: You got started ok but now your mind’s gone blank and you feel you can’t remember anything.
  • What do you do now, and what could you have done earlier?
topic by topic revision 2
Topic by Topic Revision 2
  • Work in small groups on a different one of the following topics:

South Africa; India; Islam; Ireland; Global Capitalism

  • From what you can recall about each topic, identify which module concepts are particularly relevant. Then try to come up with three bullet points that reflect major issues/learning points for each week of this topic that you would need to keep in mind when revising it, together with relevant authors/research.
south africa apartheid
South Africa: Apartheid
  • Apartheid=‘separate development’=institutionalised racism 1948-1994, introduced by Afrikaaner National Party
  • Precursors in 1910 Union denying black people the vote; 1913 & 1936 Land Acts: black population g0t 13% of (poorest) land
  • Migrant labour system: secured cheap, plentiful (mainly male) black labour for mines, factories and servicing urban areas , tried to prevent black urbanization
  • Many African women ‘left behind’, families divided
  • Africans with residence rights beyond the ‘reserves’ confined to shanty-towns on edge of towns and cities they served
  • Black female domestic workers serviced white families living in, forced to live apart from own children, on call 24/7, poorly paid
  • Bantustan policy – to create ‘independent’ countries and remove South African citizenship (eg. Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei)
south africa post apartheid
South Africa: Post-apartheid
  • African resistance to apartheid non-violent at first, then ANC launched armed struggle in early 1960s
  • State response: detention without trial, banning, violence
  • Ongoing resistance from black population, through ANC, trade unions, women organising (some as mothers), youth
  • Mandela released in 1990 – core apartheid laws repealed
  • ANC win first free and fair elections in 1994, still in power
  • Decades of racial inequalities cannot be overcome quickly
  • Women’s coalition ensured gender could not be ignored, but many black women still can’t exercise their new rights
  • Has feminism been diluted through incorporation?
  • Ongoing problems of sexual violence, feminization of (black) poverty, HIV/Aids, brutality of mine work
india colonialism and nationalism
India: Colonialism and Nationalism
  • Nationalism: political movement to establish or re-establish nationhood; narrative about who belongs to a nation 
  • Women central as biological and cultural reproducers of nation
  • Men expected to fight, strategize, exhibit hyper masculinity
  • India became British colony first through trade then indirect rule
  • Gandhi pioneered Satyagraha, non-violent resistance, met with suppression, violence and political tinkering
  • Indian nationalists partly defined modernity re improving women’s public status (political rights) but not private status
  • British sought to justify colonialism as freeing Indian women, but also didn’t envisage full gender equality
  • Both sides used women’s status as rationale, homogenized women
  • Nationalism gave many middle class Indian women public role
  • Independence in 1947 brought Partition
india post colonial
India: Post-colonial
  • Women gained suffrage and education rights but gap between rights and implementation and initially economic rights neglected (for welfarism)
  • Some family law reform (but resisted, Muslim exemption)
  • Wanted new woman to symbolize modernity of new India (radical agenda) but also traditional family woman to protect authentic Indian culture (conservative agenda)
  • Differences between Indian women perpetuated: re class and caste; contrast of women leaders while many unborn (son preference – sex selective abortion – missing girls)
  • Fragmented women’s movement resurged in 1970s
  • Ongoing campaigns against sexual violence; against dependence of women on men; for sexual rights
orientalism religious fundamentalism
Orientalism & Religious Fundamentalism
  • Edward Said’s Orientalism: idea west is innately superior to east
  • Used to ‘legitimate’ colonialism and imperial expansion
  • Western ‘civilisation’: Eastern ‘barbarity’ read from women’s status
  • Accounts of gender inequalities can be orientalist, ignoring history, women’s resistance, differences. How to avoid?
  • Fundamentalism: Patriarchal claim to religious truth (in all religions), imbued with nationalism, attempt to fuse religion/state
  • Control over women’s sexuality/fertility central, while entrench men as household heads/leaders. Women define nation/honour
  • Hindutva: religious fundamentalism in Hinduism, seeking Hindu Indian state, anti-Muslim, BJP incited destruction at Ayodyha key
  • Venerated Hindu mothers contrasted with ‘enemy’ women (Muslim); disciplined Hindu men with out of control Muslim men
  • Sees western feminism as imperialist, corrupt, destructive
  • Other examples: Islamic fundamentalism; 1950s Irish Catholicism?
islam and iran
Islam and Iran
  • Must recognize extent and diversity of Islamic world, not all fundamentalist, some Muslim states secular
  • Video:
  • Is the Qur’an essentially patriarchal or a product of patriarchal times? Some Islamic theologians reinterpret for women’s rights
  • Case study of Iran – 1st modern fundamentalist Islamic state, 1979
  • Both Shahs and Mullahs linked women to nation – as ‘unveiled’ for western modernity; ‘reveiled’ for eastern values and tradition
  • Many women chose ‘veiling’ in 1979, now compulsory
  • Post-revolution, Haremi groups men as mullahs, martyrs and ordinary: all control their women but not all are equally powerful
  • Women scholars and activists in Iran have tried to claim back rights for women, some liberalization under Khatami then set-backs
islam the veil
Islam: The ‘veil’
  • Western stereotypes about women and Islam generally negative: construct Islamic women as passive victims
  • Such stereotypes are used discursively to construct Islamic countries in Orientalist terms
  • Need to ask about the social and historical context of Islamic practices that discriminate against women
  • ‘Veil’ taken as emblematic of Muslim women’s oppression – but must recognize diversity of ‘veil’ and its history
  • Modesty prescribed for Muslim men as well, head-covering for women has Christian history around Mediterranean
  • Compulsory full cover very different from optional scarf
  • Considering perspectives of Muslim women who ‘veil’ complicates any analysis
ireland nationalism
Ireland: Nationalism
  • Modern history=one British colony split in two: Irish Free State (26 of 32 counties, majority Catholic, gets independence) and Northern Ireland, remaining 6, mainly Protestant, still in UK
  • Ireland not Catholic state per se but Catholicism dominant
  • Ideal Irish woman: Catholic, motherly, self-sacrificing, virtuous, pure, heart of home etc. Ideal Irish man: Provider, authority
  • Irish women involved in nationalist struggle but barred from joining key organisations, formed own, played support roles, some fought in (guerrilla-type) war for independence
  • Usual tensions emerged between feminism and nationalism – women’s equality must await independence
  • Tradition and Catholicism informed DeValera’s new government, legislation confined women to homes as wives and (necessarily) prolific mothers, including article 41.2 of 1935 Constitution
  • Women workers earned just over half men’s earnings on average
ireland modernization
Ireland: Modernization
  • 1959: Lemassbegan modernisation, opening up to world
  • Rapid industrialisation via export-orientation, joined EEC in 1973, employment soared and Irish emigration fell
  • New jobs for women improved their status, but wages low
  • New media circulated new futures for women, beyond motherhood, as trust in Catholic church declined
  • Women’s organisations campaigning for access to: divorce (legal from 1995); contraception; abortion (still illegal); equal pay
  • Campaigning against gender discrimination; sexual violence
  • Setbacks with recession of 1980s, conservative backlash
  • 1990s – the booming Celtic Tiger, Mary Robinson as President, more women in work and women having fewer children
  • But double burden, high levels of domestic violence, few women in political power. Meanwhile poor health outcomes for men
  • 2008: boom ends with banking crisis, job losses, emigration again
gender and global capitalism
Gender and Global Capitalism
  • Old IDL rooted in imperialism vs. NIDL in post-colonial world; relocation of manufacturing, services, agribusiness, care-work
  • ISI phase favours men as workers but EOI brings feminization of labour: women preferred as highly productive, can be paid less
  • Pros and cons of industrial employment for women workers: independence, financial autonomy, a social life beyond the family, mobility, but also long working hours, poor working conditions, risks to health, paternalistic control. Impact contradictory
  • If women are ‘cheap’ labour then they are made so socially and culturally
  • Marrying and having children worsens women’s labour market position, given lack of child-care, and even more poorly paid homeworking may be only option
taking on global capital
Taking on Global Capital
  • Women workers are not docile; long history of organising to improve wages and working conditions but face many barriers
  • Unions may be banned, members harassed, time and gender interest constraints
  • Consumer pressure can also raise wages and working conditions via fair trade and ethical trade
  • To what extent are FT and ET for workers but not by workers?
  • To what extent do FT and ET recognise gendered work?
  • How are workers’ lives used to sell the idea of fair trade?
  • Is there a danger of ‘fairwashing’
  • Does ET put impossible pressure on employers to do right by their workers while also selling their produce ever cheaper?
  • Can’t expect economic justice without cultural justice
  • Best of luck with your revision and the exam
  • I hope you’ve enjoyed the module
  • I’ve enjoyed your engagement and I hope to see some of you next year on Transformations… 