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Chapter 6 – Section 2. The Enlightenment in Europe. Introduction. Enlightenment – Age of Reason Applying reason and the scientific method to all aspects of life Society – Government, Religion, Economics, Education, Business, Thought, etc. Do we see this in our society now?.

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chapter 6 section 2
Chapter 6 – Section 2

The Enlightenment in Europe

  • Enlightenment – Age of Reason
    • Applying reason and the scientific method to all aspects of life
        • Society – Government, Religion, Economics, Education, Business, Thought, etc.
        • Do we see this in our society now?
two views on government
Two Views on Government
  • Hobbes’s Social Contract
      • The English Civil War spurred Hobbes’s to conclude that all people are selfish and not nice.
      • Saw life as brutal and nasty (glass have empty type of guy
      • To overcome such nastiness, people needed to give up their rights to a central authority (absolute monarchy)
          • Gained law & order
            • Known as the Social contract where people created absolute monarchs with their own selfishness.
            • Hobbes’s said that absolute monarchs needed to rule like a leviathan (sea monster).

Does this make any sense whatsoever?

  • Locke’s Natural Rights
      • He was a more “glass half-full” type of dude
        • People could learn from mistakes and improve themselves
        • Do you see both Hobbes’s and Locke’s theories today? Where? How?
        • Favored self-government
      • Believed in the 3 natural rights
        • Life
        • Liberty
        • Property
      • The government’s job was to protect these rights. The government was by and for the people by popular consent.
        • If government wasn’t for the people, Locke noted they should be overthrown.
          • This was a further step towards our modern-day democracy!!!
philosophes advocate reason
Philosophes Advocate Reason
  • Same thing as philosophers who met in France in the mid-1700s.
      • They believed they could APPLY reason to life just as scientists applied reason to science.
      • The core of their philosophy was based on 5 critical elements
        • Reason-Absence on intolerance, bigotry, bias, or prejudice in one’s thinking to make analytical decisions.
        • Nature-There were laws in science, but also societal laws in economics, behavior, politics, etc.
        • Happiness-A decent life on earth vs. being miserable so you could have joy in heaven.
        • Progress-Society moving forward and perfecting it through technology and science.
        • Liberty-Being free and trusting citizens to make good choices as to not screw it up.
philosophes voltaire
Philosophes - Voltaire
  • “I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.” –Voltaire.
    • What does this statement indicate about Voltaire’s views on free speech?
    • How is it similar to beliefs about free speech in the U.S.
  • Voltaire didn’t foster changed with violence, but did it with the swipe of his pen.
    • Mocked France’s restrictive govt.
    • Envied England's govt.
    • Pushed for freedom from the repressive French govt. and freedom of religion.
      • Let people choose what’s best for them instead of an absolute monarch forcing it upon them.

Nooooo! I’m with Voltaire

montesquieu wants separation
Montesquieu wants Separation
  • He was a writer just like Voltaire and used his pen to influence society.
      • Montesquieu also felt that England had an awesome govt.
          • King and his ministers – Carried out laws (Executive Power)
          • Parliament – Made laws (Legislative Power)
          • Judges/English Courts - Interpreted laws to determine legality (Judicial Power)
          • He called this division, Separation of Powers
      • What is the purpose of separation of powers?
        • To keep any one branch of government from

gaining TOTAL control (Checks and Balances)

jean jacques rousseau freedom
Jean Jacques Rousseau & Freedom
  • A very awkward man who didn’t fit in.
      • So…instead of conforming to society, he challenged it with new ideas.
      • According to Rousseau, “People had lived as free and equal individuals in a primitive ‘state of nature’”.
          • However, when people became more advanced and civilized people lost their freedom to unjust laws under an absolute monarchy
      • Believed that govt. should be formed by and for the people (Elections – Direct Democracy).
          • No social contract here!!!
              • No contract between people and govt., but free individuals creating a society.
      • His, radical at the time ideas, inspired many to embark on the French Revolution that overthrew the monarchy in 1789.
rousseau s belief
Rousseau’s belief

Had more freedom than…

Civilized man

cesare bonesana beccaria criminal justice
CesareBonesanaBeccaria & Criminal Justice
  • Believed laws were to promote social order, not to punish crime
  • Spoke out against injustices/abuses he had seen.
      • Torture
      • Illegitimate trials
      • Punishments that did not fit the crime, but were more severe
  • His argument consisted of:
      • A speedy trial
      • No torture
      • Punishment should fit the crime
women and the enlightenment
Women and the Enlightenment
  • Mary Wollstonecraft
      • Published A Vindication of the Rights of Woman in 1792.
      • Rousseau was pretty cool in his thought process, but he was a


            • Wollstonecraft challenged his thoughts
                • Women should receive same education as men
                • Women could be doctors, not just nurses
                • Women should participate in politics
  • Overall, women lobbied for better educational opportunities
  • Many wealthy women spread enlightenment ideas at salons (social gatherings)
enlightenment s impact
Enlightenment’s Impact
  • Three long-term effects
      • Belief in Progress
          • If science could solve problems and gain believers, philosophes felt the could solve social problems too.
      • Secular Outlook
          • Promoted tolerance of all religions and rid Christianity of superstitions.
          • Believed in God, but proved God’s awesomeness through mathematics and science instead of it being a mystery.
      • Importance of Individual
          • Becoming self-reliant instead of depending on royalty and the church.
          • Know morals (Difference between right and wrong).