Big ideas
1 / 18

Big Ideas - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Big Ideas. Agricultural sector contributes significantly to GHG emissions Agricultural sector can contribute more to mitigation In agriculture, adaptation goes hand-in-hand with mitigation. Mitigation options. Reduce deforestation and forest degradation Afforestation and reforestation

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Big Ideas' - kioko

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Big ideas
Big Ideas

  • Agricultural sector contributes significantly to GHG emissions

  • Agricultural sector can contribute more to mitigation

  • In agriculture, adaptation goes hand-in-hand with mitigation

Mitigation options
Mitigation options

  • Reduce deforestation and forest degradation

  • Afforestation and reforestation

  • Forest management interventions to maintain or increase forest carbon density

  • Increase carbon stocks in wood products and enhance fuel substitution

Big ideas

Adaptation options that also

reduce emissions

  • promote crop diversification and availability of quality seeds

  • reduce the rate of deforestation and forest degradation

  • improve wildfires control

  • avoid burning of crop residues

  • improve soil ecosystems through better management practices including conservation agriculture

  • promote efficient energy use by commercial agriculture and agro-industries

Policy options
Policy Options

  • Regulations

    • Taxes

    • Penalties

  • Incentives

    • Payments for Environmental Services

    • Access to technology

    • Education

Regulations often mitigate as a side effect
Regulations (often mitigate as a side effect)

  • Taxes

    • Nitrogen Fertilizer Taxes in Europe

    • Pesticide tax in India

    • Methane tax under consideration in New Zealand

  • Penalities

    • Water runoff quality

Demand is growing

30 US$ Billion


(Size in million mtCO2e)

10US$ Billion










(Value in US$ Billion)

Figures from the State and Trends of the Carbon Market, several issues World Bank

Demand is growing

SIZE and VALUE of the cap & trade carbon market

With little going to agriculture

2% CDM

Animal waste management


1% CDM

With little going to agriculture

Cap & Trade

30 billion

Payments for environmental services pes
Payments for Environmental Services (PES)

  • Payments to Farmers for: Carbon (including set asides and management changes), Biodiversity, Water

  • The largest is China’s “Grain for Green” programme with 15 million farmers in over 2000 counties to grow trees and reduce soil erosion

  • Poorer farmers do participate, often contributing land with better potential impact

Payments to farmers for environmental services
Payments to farmers for environmental services

  • payments are for incremental costs

  • change in land use

    • e.g. cropland to grassland or forest

  • change in management practices

    • e.g. reduced tillage

  • possible synergies, possible tradeoffs

    • soil loss, water quality, carbon sequestration

    • yields, prices, employment, land values

Appropriate policies are key
Appropriate policies are key



Farmers and other

resource managers

-- supported by

appropriate policies







Big ideas

Silvopastoral Ecosystem Management in Colombia, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua: Impact from payments for environmental services (carbon sequestration and biodiversity) 2003-2006

  • Herbicide use down by 60%

  • Degraded pasture down by 64%

  • Pastures with high tree density up by 130%

  • Fodder Bank up by 256%

  • Carbon sequestered up by 71%

  • Farm income up by 115%

Poverty related issues in payments for environmental services pes
Poverty related issues in Payments for Environmental Services (PES)

  • Informal property rights

  • Lack of credit

  • Information hard to find

  • Possible Risks

    • Lower wages for farm labour

    • Higher food prices

    • Pressure to exclude poor from informal land use

Transaction costs of pes
Transaction costs of PES Services (PES)

  • Transaction costs borne by Farmers

    • Complex rules

    • Buyer-seller linkages

    • Local organization

  • Transaction costs borne by Formal Institutions

    • Incorporate traditional property rights

    • Institutions for collective management

    • Capacity Building

      • Business Skills

      • Technical Skills

    • Policy Coherence

State of food agriculture 2007
State of Food & Agriculture 2007 Services (PES)

  • Demand for ecosystem services will grow

  • Agriculture can provide a better mix

  • Appropriate incentives are essential; payments for environmental services are one tool

  • Effective payments require careful consideration of who, how/much, what for

  • Payment programmes can also affect poverty and food security

  • Need to clarify rights, improve information and support appropriate institutions

Big ideas

Map 02 – Areas in agricultural production Services (PES)

with high Soil Carbon Gap

Big ideas

Mitigation and adaptation Services (PES)

  • Develop early warning systems based on vulnerability

  • Collect and analyze good practices and knowledge

  • Build resilience at local level by promoting adaptation capacity at community level

No compromise with food security and livelihood
No compromise with food security and livelihood Services (PES)

Thank you