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Pub Health 4310 Health Hazards in Industry. John Flores Lecture 1 Introduction and History. Overview. Syllabus Lists subject matter and required readings Course Description Format Lecture, discussions Field Trips Short Reports for each field trip Exams (Four)

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Pub Health 4310Health Hazards in Industry

John Flores

Lecture 1

Introduction and History

PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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Overview

Syllabus

Lists subject matter and required readings

Course Description

  • Format

    • Lecture, discussions

    • Field Trips

    • Short Reports for each field trip

    • Exams (Four)

  • Course Content and Area of Emphasis

    • Industry definitions and terms

    • Discussion of specific industry hazards

    • Site visits to identify real workplace hazards

  • PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    Overview

    • Location BNR- 314

    • Time: M, W, F from 8:30 – 9:20 A.M.

    • Instructor: John Flores

    • Contact Information

      Office: BNR 321

      Office Hours – To be posted, but if I’m there just knock

      Phone: 797-8194

      Email: jflores@biology.usu.edu

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    Overview

    • Readings

      • Required Text:

        Recognition of Health Hazards in Industry, a review of materials and processes by William A. Burgess (Available at University Bookstore)

      • The Occupational Environment – It’s Evaluation and Control – AIHA Press

      • Supplemental Reading from websites or newspaper articles.

  • Grading:

    • 4 1-hr exams worth 100 points each 400 pts

    • Final exam worth 300 points (mandatory) 300 pts

    • 6 Field Trips (attend at least 5; 10 points/field trip) 50 pts

    • 5 mini-reports, 20 points each 100 pts

    • Lab attendance, 10 pts each for 5 labs 50 pts

    • Complete lab work assignments 100 pts

      Total 1000 pts

  • PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    Overview

    • Determination of Final Grade:

      Letter Grade% of Total Points

      A >92

      A- 90 - 92

      B+ 86 - <90

      B 82 - <86

      B- 80 - <82

      C+ 76 - <80

      C 72 - <76

      C- 70 - <72

      D+ 66 - <70

      D 60 - <66

      F <60

    • Test Content and Format:

      • Test questions from class lectures and assigned readings

      • Each exam will cover information since preceding exam

      • Final exam will cover first 4 exams and information since the last exam

        (75% from first 4 exams, and 25% from material since last exam)

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    Overview

    • Field Trips

      • 6 times during the semester we will go on a field trip. I will try to get a van, but we may have to car pool. Each field trip is worth 10 points, 5 are required, but this gives you an opportunity to get 10 points extra credit.

  • Field Trip Reports

    • 5 reports are required at 20 pts each, but 6 reports can be completed for up to 20 extra credit points.

    • Purpose of reports: To determine what hazards stood out in your mind, and what next steps as an IH you want to take

    • Include at least 3 paragraphs. Report should be 1-2 pages, more than 2 pages will not get you a better grade, you might even lose points. Most managers won’t take the time to read more than a 2 page report.

      • Paragraph 1: brief summary of what the company does

      • Paragraph 2: ID the 5 major hazards you noticed

      • Paragraph 3: What are the next steps to address each hazard.

  • PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    Industrial Hygiene

    What is industrial hygiene?

    • The science of anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and control of workplace conditions that may cause injury or illness to workers.

    • It is also an art.

      Safety vs. Industrial Hygiene:

    • Safety worries about what will hurt you right now.

    • Industrial hygiene has to consider those things that will hurt you right now, but has to be especially concerned with what can you be exposed to today that is going to impede or impair you in the future.

      Course Focus:

    • Anticipation and recognition of potential hazards, the evaluation and control will come later.

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    A History of Occupational Health and Safety

    Learning Goals:

    • Understand how and why the social goal of providing occupational health and safety (OHS) protection services is an on-going activity with a long and sporadic history of accomplishments.

    • Be able to identify at least one name and their contributions to OHS in the time frames of 500-3000 years ago, 100-500 years ago, and in the last 100 years.

    • Be familiar with the major pieces of OHS legislation in the United States.

    • Be able to differentiate among the alphabet soup of OHS organizations including OSHA, NIOSH, ABIH, ACGIH, and AIHA.

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    A History of Occupational Health and Safety

    Early History (3000 to 200 years ago)

    • Prehistoric speculations: Survival was (and still can be) the ultimate occupational disease. Concerns with acute health and safety hazards were addressed at an individual, family, and/or tribal level. The development of agriculture and domesticated livestock lead to settlements and the Neolithic Revolution.

    • Social and economic stratification occurs in every society. The lowest socio-economic strata do the dirtiest jobs (most objectionable, irritating, and/or hazardous).

      • Historically, ones "occupational" specialization had either political, economic, or/and social bases.

        • Forced labors of the slave, prisoner, or criminal.

        • Transition from slavery, to serfdom, to economic pay for work completed.

        • Stigmas against manual labor versus practicing arts and crafts.

      • Low value of individual employees (like interchangeable parts; no training investment) is slowly being supplanted by recognized value in knowledge and experience.

      • Acceptance of a high fatality rate corresponded to the value of high birth rates and child labor.

      • Prestige of certain "high-risk" occupations continues through today.

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    A History of Occupational Health and Safety

    Early History (3000 to 200 years ago)

    • Events and people reporting an interest in occupational health during the Classical era were sporadic.

      • Hippocrates(about 460-370 BC)

        • Has been called the "Father of Medicine" and alluded to occupationally caused ailments although his focus was on the health of citizens not workers.

        • Recognized and recorded lead toxicity in miners but history shows no evidence that he also provided preventive follow-up.

      • Pliny the Elder (23-77 AD) Plinius Caecilius Secundus

        • Roman scholar and naturalist, who described the use of bladder-derived respirators for protection of cinnabar dusts and vapors (HgS and Hg), and lead.

        • He died investigating the eruption of Vesuvius.

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    A History of Occupational Health and Safety

    Early History (3000 to 200 years ago)

    • Medieval period in Europe (500-1500 AD) was characterized by a broad disinterest in science generally including the etiology of disease. [ref: Indr. Med. Surg. Sept 1962]

      • Only widely scattered reports of recognized or recorded hazards, but there was no social, intellectual, political or economic push for change.

      • Guilds (medieval group of craftsmen) were reported to have developed assistance programs for disabled members and their families.

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    A History of Occupational Health and Safety

    Early History (3000 to 200 years ago)

    • Renaissance writings (1500-1800 AD) show a slow recognition of the social interest in worker health but not an economic interest as skilled workers.

      • Ulrich Ellenbog (1473) recognized that vapors of some metals were dangerous (Pb and Hg)

      • Georgius Agricola (1494-1555), a physician, wrote "De Re Metallica" (1556) that describes silicosis, respirators, and ventilation of metal mines, smelting, and refining in Bohemia (Czeck.)

      • Paracelsus (1493-1541) (Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim) worldly vagabond physician of central Europe, authored a treatise (published in 1567, 26 years after his death) on the etiology and medical treatment of various mining and smelting diseases in Austria.

      • BernardoRamazzini (1633-1714, Italy) a.k.a. “The father of occupational medicine,” was a well established physician-researcher who studied work-related diseases in/around Padua, Italy.

        • "De Morbis Artificum Diatriba" (Diseases of Workers - 1700) discussed about 100 occupations, their hazards, diseases, but focused more on therapy than prevention.

        • Taught “Of what trade are you?" as an integral physician’s question about a patient.

      • Percival Pott (1713-1788, England) conducted an epidemiological study that recognized soot and lack of hygiene as causes of scrotal cancer among chimney sweeps

        • His work helped create the "Chimney Sweepers Act of 1788," the first of a long and continuing series of health related legislative acts.

      • Charles Thackrah authors the first English book on Occupational Medicine (1830).

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    A History of Occupational Health and Safety

    Early beginnings of occupational health legislation (19th century)

    • The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain spawns industries, urbanization, the printing press and newspapers, and writers and speakers who created social interest groups who created political pressures, which lead to legislative remedies.

      • Growth of industrial technologies (coal, steel, steam, textiles, mass production) also created additional hazards of fire, accidents, and more toxic effects.

      • A shift from rural agricultural employment to urban industrial employment; created a society of people having economic dependence on an employer instead of being a freeman with village support.

      • Technology in the form of the printing press and newspapers lead to the development of urban social consciousness, political organizations, the American and French revolutions, and the spawning of organized labor unions.

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    A History of Occupational Health and Safety

    Early beginnings of occupational health legislation (19th century)

    • The Early English Factory Acts (1833-1878) were directed toward worker protection (e.g., child labor, fire prevention, sanitation, and injuries from accidents).

      • It authorized a "Factory Inspectorate" that still exists today.

      • Required medical certification for children to work (resulting in birth registration in 1837) and later for workers in other trades.

      • Later application of these Acts were directed toward health hazards from lead paint, yellow phosphorus (early matches), and carbon disulfide (a rubber vulcanizer).

    • American occupational health intervention programs temporally paralleled those in Britain but were largely State initiated

      • Massachusetts Child Labor Law (1835) which did not have policing powers until 1867

      • However, no state (or prior Federal) agency had the powers of today’s OSHA.

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    A History of Occupational Health and Safety

    Modern History (essentially the 20th Century)

    • Protecting the injured worker, “Workers Compensation”

      • Had its beginnings in the early 20th century,

      • It is a mechanism to supplement victim or family for loss of gainful employment without needing to sue the employer

        • This thinking preceded the development of cost saving programs in both safety and health.

      • Historically, to receive compensation under common-law, the employee must sue the employer and must prove negligence on the part of the employer.

        • The employers had two strong defenses:

          • assumption of known risk by the employee (an implied contract), and

          • contributory negligence by the employee or a co-worker.

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    A History of Occupational Health and Safety

    Modern History (essentially the 20th Century)

    • Workers Compensation (cont.)

      • Statutory legislation placed limited financial responsibility (in terms of a set schedule of payments) on the employer without their assumption of fault (in essence, a "no-fault" insurance system).

      • Time lines and geographic progression of early workers compensation legislation:

        • 1881 – Switzerland

        • 1882 – Germany

        • 1897 – England (in terms of comprehensive coverage)

        • 1906 – U.S. legislation covering railroad workers (interstate commerce authority)

          • was litigated for 6 yrs.

        • 1908 – Federal employees were partly covered; expanded in 1916.

        • 1911 – States begin to pass compensation laws; 42 states by 1920.

        • 1948 – Mississippi was last state to adopt workers compensation legislation.

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    A History of Occupational Health and Safety

    Modern History (essentially the 20th Century)

    • Workers compensation and disease

      • Occupational diseases lagged behind compensation for injuries because they were thought to be rare and restricted to isolated industries, like mining and metal processing.

      • Inclusion of compensation for a small number of specific diseases was delayed only slightly (Hawaii, 1917; California 1918). [ref. Federal Task Force report, 1973].

      • The list of "scheduled" diseases expanded greatly following a series of state and Federally funded reports by Dr. Alice Hamilton (1915-25).

      • Recognition of the full spectrum of occupational diseases continues to lag behind the expanding introduction of new organic chemicals and the slow development of epidemiological associations between exposure and disease.

      • Disease recognition and compensation continue to be a legal issue.

        • For example, as a result of Froude v. Eagle-Picher (First Circuit Court of Appeals, 82-869 and 82-1097) liability for delayed diseases such as lung cancer begins at the time the disease manifests (not upon exposure or termination from work; this concept also applies to 3rd party and product liability suits).

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    A History of Occupational Health and Safety

    Modern History (essentially the 20th Century)

    • OSHA was established from the 1970 William-Steiger Act (PL 91-596) which was a result of workplace deaths, injuries, illnesses, and a lack of comprehensive and consistent health and safety programs at the state and local level.

      Through this act, OSHA was established within the Department of Labor, while NIOSH (formerly the Dept of IH of the USPHS) was established within the Department of Health and Human Services.

      OSHA has since funded numerous state activities and organizations.

      • In particular, the Federal government funds state cooperative OSHA programs (50:50 for OSHA compliance and 90:10 for OSHA consultation).

      • About 50% of states now administer their own OSHA program.

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    A History of Occupational Health and Safety

    Modern History (essentially the 20th Century)

    • The history of governmental occupational health and safety agencies preceding OSHA started after the Civil War.

      1884 Bureau of Labor formed within the Department of Interior

      1888 An independent Department of Labor was formed without cabinet status

      1903 Department of Commerce and Labor formed.

      1910 Prohibitive tax for using white phosphorus matches was issued to protect workers.

      1913 Department of Labor formed (mining was still in Interior for over 60 years).

      1966 Metal and Nonmetallic Mine Safety Act was passed.

      1968 Farmington W.Va. coal mine explosion and fire kills over 80 miners.

      1969 Coal Mine Safety & Health Law was passed; initially administered by Bureau of Mines.

      1970 Williams-Steiger Act, PL 91-596, "The Occupational Safety and Health Act" created OSHA.

      1973 MESA (Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration) formed within Dept. of Interior.

      1976 Toxic Substances Control Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act admin. by EPA.

      1977 MESA became MSHA.

      1980 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act.

    Phossy Jaw" by AE Miles, British Dental Journal 1972, Vol 133: 203-6

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    A History of Occupational Health and Safety

    Modern History (essentially the 20th Century)

    • The history of governmental training and research organizations preceding NIOSH (now part of Dept. of Health and Human Services) was largely similar to OSHA but with perhaps more but smaller increments.

      1798 U.S. Marine Hospital Service, predecessor of U.S. Public Health Service.

      1912-14 Office of Industrial Hygiene & Sanitation was formed. Illinois funds Alice Hamilton.

      1924 New Jersey studies the deaths of radium watch dial painters.

      1930 The Hawks Nest tunnel construction begins in Gauley Bridge, W. Va.; kills 476 by 1935 (this contributed to the passage of the Walsh-Healey Act of 1936).

      1937 Division of Industrial Hygiene within the National Institute of Health, USPHS.

      1943-44 Consolidation of USPHS laws established a Division of Occupational Health.

      1953 Department of Health, Education, and Welfare formed (incl. the USPHS).

      1970 Williams-Steiger Act, aka PL 91-596 or The Occupational Safety and Health Act creates NIOSH

      1979 Department of Health and Human Services formed (included the USPHS).

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    A History of Occupational Health and Safety

    Modern History (essentially the 20th Century)

    • The history of "non-governmental" health and safety organizations followed legislative and legal changes, not all of which were directed explicitly toward health and safety issues.

      1913 National Council for Industrial Safety (became National Safety Council in 1915) formed in response to Workers Compensation legislation.

      1915 American Public Health Association formed an "industrial hygiene" section.

      1916 American Occupational Medical Association.

      1925 Dr. Alice Hamilton (physician, toxicologist, and possibly the "first" American industrial hygienist) publishes "Industrial Poisons in the United States" (see also her autobiography “Exploring the Dangerous Trades," 1943).

      1935 Social Security Act included provisions (Title III) for the USPHS to make grants-in- aid for I.H. research that established a corps of expertise and funded state I.H. programs (which were largely only "advisory," i.e., without compliance authority).

      1935 The Wagner Act (aka the National Labor Relations Act or the NLRA) guaranteed to employees the right to form labor organizations (unions), and to bargain collectively; created the National Labor Relations Board to regulate unfair labor practices by employers.

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    A History of Occupational Health and Safety

    Modern History (essentially the 20th Century)

    • The history of "non-governmental" health and safety organizations (cont.)

      1936 The Walsh-Healey Act established labor safety and health requirements for government contractors. Standards were to be (and still are) adopted as recommended by government "advisors." A group of governmental industrial hygienists organized a "conference" for health matters that became the ACGIH.

      1938 ACGIH - the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists initially was formed to develop and maintain the TLV list (for use in the Walsh-Healey Act); ACGIH is still largely limited to government and university IH’s.

      1939 AIHA - the American Industrial Hygiene Association formed a professional society open to all practitioners (but in practical terms and demography is industry dominated).

      1942 The American Association of Industrial Nurses was formed.

      1947 The Taft-Hartley Act (aka the Labor-Management Relations Act of 1947) amended the NLRA to put certain restrictions on the rights and obligations of labor unions.

      1960 The American Board of Industrial Hygienists [ABIH] formed as a non- governmentally recognized certification body. CIH’s automatically became a member of the Academy of IH (which is now a sort-of super committee within AIHA).

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    A History of Occupational Health and Safety

    General historical timeline since the American Industrial Revolution:

    1798 U.S. Marine Hospital Service, predecessor of U.S. Public Health Service.

    1884 Bureau of Labor formed within the Department of Interior

    1888 An independent Department of Labor was formed without cabinet status

    1903 Department of Commerce and Labor formed.

    1910 Prohibitive tax on white phosphorus matches was issued to protect worker health.

    1912-14 Office of Industrial Hygiene & Sanitation was formed. Illinois funds Alice Hamilton.

    1913 National Council for Industrial Safety (became National Safety Council in 1915) formed in response to Workers Compensation legislation.

    1913 Department of Labor formed (mining was still in Interior for over 60 years).

    1915 American Public Health Association formed an "industrial hygiene" section.

    1916 American Occupational Medical Association forms.

    1924 New Jersey studies the deaths of radium watch dial painters.

    1925 Dr. Alice Hamilton (physician, toxicologist, and possibly the "first" American industrial hygienist) publishes "Industrial Poisons in the United States" (see also her autobiography “Exploring the Dangerous Trades," 1943).

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


    Slide24 l.jpg

    A History of Occupational Health and Safety

    General historical timeline since the American Industrial Revolution:

    1930 The Hawks Nest tunnel construction begins in Gauley Bridge, W. Va.; kills 476 by 1935 (this event contributed to the passage of the Walsh-Healey Act of 1936).

    1935 Social Security Act included provisions (Title III) for the USPHS to make grants-in-aid for I.H. research that established a corps of expertise and funded state I.H. programs (which were largely only "advisory," i.e., without compliance authority).

    1935 The Wagner Act (aka the National Labor Relations Act or the NLRA) guaranteed to employees the right to form labor organizations (unions), and to bargain collectively; created the National Labor Relations Board to regulate unfair labor practices by employers.

    1936 The Walsh-Healey Act established labor safety and health requirements for government contractors. Standards were to be (and still are) adopted as recommended by government "advisors."

    1936 A group of governmental industrial hygienists organized a "conference" for health matters that became the ACGIH.

    1937 Division of Industrial Hygiene within the National Institute of Health, USPHS.

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


    Slide25 l.jpg

    A History of Occupational Health and Safety

    General historical timeline since the American Industrial Revolution:

    1938 ACGIH - the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists initially was formed to develop and maintain the TLV list (for use in the Walsh-Healey Act); ACGIH is still largely limited to government and university IH’s.

    1939 AIHA - the American Industrial Hygiene Association formed a professional society open to all practitioners (but in practical terms and demography is industry dominated).

    1942 The American Association of Industrial Nurses was formed.

    1943-44 Consolidation of USPHS laws established a Division of Occupational Health.

    1947 The Taft-Hartley Act (aka the Labor-Management Relations Act of 1947) amended the NLRA to put certain restrictions on the rights and obligations of labor unions.

    1953 Department of Health, Education, and Welfare formed and became part of USPHS.

    1960 The American Board of Industrial Hygienists [ABIH] formed as a non- governmentally recognized certification body. CIH’s automatically became a member of the Academy of IH (which is now a sort-of super committee within AIHA).

    1966 Metal and Nonmetallic Mine Safety Act was passed.

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


    Slide26 l.jpg

    A History of Occupational Health and Safety

    General historical timeline since the American Industrial Revolution:

    1968 Farmington W.Va. coal mine explosion and fire kills over 80 miners.

    1969 Coal Mine Safety and Health Law was passed; initially administered by Bureau of Mines.

    1970 Williams-Steiger Act, PL 91-596, "The Occupational Safety and Health Act" created OSHA and used standards used from the Walsh-Healy Act (1968 TLVs)

    1970 Williams-Steiger Act, aka PL 91-596 or The Occupational Safety and Health Act creates NIOSH from the Division of IH of the USPHS

    1973 MESA (Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration) formed within Dept. of Interior.

    1976 Toxic Substances Control Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act admin. by EPA.

    1977 MESA became MSHA.

    1979 Department of Health and Human Services formed (incl. the USPHS).

    1980 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act.

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


    Slide27 l.jpg

    A History of Occupational Health and Safety

    The history of occupational health and safety can be summarized as

    sporadic but mostly active in the last half of the 20th Century, spurred

    on by increasing rates of change of …

    • industrial processes and agents that could create adverse effects;

    • health surveillance and medical technologies to detect, to associate, and in some cases to treat adverse health effects;

    • social settings, expectations, and organizations (political, legal, and unions) first strive for wages and the organizations' right to exist, then to gain access to medical services for workers, and most recently for health protection services;

    • governmental regulations (largely transient, sporadic, and in response to political pressures) that addressed child labor protection, birth certificates, workers compensation, union protections, social security, and eventually comprehensive worker health and safety protection;

    • labor management relations confluence based on increased investment in training, negotiations on health and safety, joint labor management committees on health and safety, and even community right-to-know.

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1


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    A History of Occupational Health and Safety

    General historical references:

    • C. Lenz, Occupational Medicine: Principles & Practical Applications "Industrial Health and Medical Programs“ USPHS Pub. No. 15, Sep. 1950. or see M.C. Klem, M.F. McKiever, and W.J. Lear: Industrial Health Programs. Public Health Service Publ. No. 15, Sep. 1950.

    • J. Corn, Historical Aspects of Industrial Hygiene - I: Changing Attitudes Toward Occupational Health. AIHAJ. 39:695-699 (1978).

    • M. Corn: The Progression of Industrial Hygiene. Appl. Indr. Hyg. 4(6):153-157, 1989.

    • D. Rhodes and C. Blanton: Alice Hamilton: Occupational Safety and Health Legend. Professional Safety. 35(8):11-15, 1990.

    • B.W. Mintz: Disorder and Early Sorrow in the OSHA Program. Am.Indr.Hyg.Assoc. 50(2):A96-A108, 1989.

    • R.J. Sherwood: Agricola Revisited: Identification and Control of Hazards in the 16th Century. Part I: Am.Indr.Hyg.Assoc. 55(2):118-124, 1994; Part II: Am.Indr.Hyg.Assoc. 55(3):202-205, 1994; Part IIII: Am.Indr.Hyg.Assoc. 55(4):305-307, 1994.

    • See the history of NLRA at http://encarta.msn.com/index/conciseindex/54/05454000.htm .

    PH 4310 - Health Hazards in Industry; Lct 1