1 / 41

# Human Energy Systems - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Human Energy Systems. NFSC 303. You will not be required to do the mathematical conversions from one for of energy to another (p. 83-85 of textbook). Energy Balance = “energy in” vs. “energy out” Energy in: Energy out: . How do we measure Calories?. Direct Calorimetry: In food:

Related searches for Human Energy Systems

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Human Energy Systems' - kinsey

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

### Human Energy Systems

NFSC 303

Energy Balance = “energy in” vs. “energy out” from one for of energy to another (p. 83-85 of textbook)

Energy in:

Energy out:

How do we measure Calories? from one for of energy to another (p. 83-85 of textbook)

• Direct Calorimetry:

• In food:

• In humans:

• Indirect Calorimetry:

• Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity

• Records body motions every second for 24 hours.

Components of Energy Expenditure from one for of energy to another (p. 83-85 of textbook)

• Energy to support basal metabolism: BEE

• Energy to support physical activity: TEE

• Energy to process food: TEF

Energy to Support Basal Metabolism from one for of energy to another (p. 83-85 of textbook)

• BEE = Basal Energy Expenditure

• (Calculated from BMR = Basal Metabolic Rate)

• Measured in standard state (no food/exercise for 12 hours; measurement taken right after waking, resting at a comfortable temperature)

• REE/RMR = Resting Energy Expenditure or Resting Metabolic Rate: similar numbers (not standard state)

• Primary factors affecting from one for of energy to another (p. 83-85 of textbook)BMR/BEE:

• Other factors: growth, fever, ambient temp., pregnancy, smoking, disease, age, BSA, kcalorie intake

To estimate from one for of energy to another (p. 83-85 of textbook)BEE:

• Rough estimate: Body weight in pounds X 10

• More accurate:

Men:

Women:

Example:

Energy to Support Physical Activity from one for of energy to another (p. 83-85 of textbook)

• TEE = Thermic Effect of Exercise

Energy Needed to Process Food from one for of energy to another (p. 83-85 of textbook)

• TEF = Thermic Effect of Food

Total Daily Energy Expenditure (kcals) from one for of energy to another (p. 83-85 of textbook)

TEE

TEF

Remember: BMR is measured 12 hours after any physical exercise and in a fasted state.

BEE

Wide difference in metabolic rates due to genetics... from one for of energy to another (p. 83-85 of textbook)

• But within our individual range…

• lowest would be achieved via

• highest would be achieved with

### Fueling Activity from one for of energy to another (p. 83-85 of textbook)

• Exogenous from one for of energy to another (p. 83-85 of textbook) fuels: from outside the body

• dietary protein, CHO, and fat

• Endogenous Fuels: from within the body

• importance increases in times of inadequate kcalories or CHO intake

Energy Metabolism: from one for of energy to another (p. 83-85 of textbook)All processes involved in the production, storage, and use of energy

• As macronutrients are broken down, E from the breakage of bonds is:

A-P from one for of energy to another (p. 83-85 of textbook)~P~P

High-energy bonds “store” energy

Cleaved to release E for

A-P/ P = AMP

To regenerate ATP, we need a source of P with high energy bonds:

AMP + 2P

These high-energy bonds will come from:

Phosphocreatine: PCr from one for of energy to another (p. 83-85 of textbook)

• High-E molecule - helps maintain a steady supply of ATP for short bursts of energy

• To keep regenerating ATP:

Metabolic Pathways from one for of energy to another (p. 83-85 of textbook)

• Take place in the cytosol and mitochondria of the cell

• Anabolic from one for of energy to another (p. 83-85 of textbook) Pathways:

• Catabolic Pathways:

• Anaerobic:

• Aerobic:

### Overview of Pathways from one for of energy to another (p. 83-85 of textbook)

Anaerobic Metabolism: from one for of energy to another (p. 83-85 of textbook)Glycolysis

• ONLY carbohydrate can do it.

Anaerobic Metabolism: from one for of energy to another (p. 83-85 of textbook)Glycolysis

• Glucose (from glycogen) is “split” for E

• It is only partially metabolized – will need oxygen to metabolize it completely.

• Primary source of E during _____________ (when O2 availability is low)

• Takes place in the cytosol of the cell

• Can metabolize fat, carbohydrate (finish the job) and some protein.

So to fuel activity, we need ATP. System (ETS)

ATP is generated by metabolizing our fuel sources: carbohydrate, fat, and some protein.

So how much of each fuel do we use during exercise? (What’s the fuel mix for a given exercise?)

Primary Exercise Fuels: System (ETS)CHO and FAT

• Carbohydrate from ______________

• Fat from ________________

Remember: only CHO can be burned when oxygen availability is low

Fuel sources used during exercise Depend on: System (ETS)

• Intensity of activity

• Duration of activity

• Fitness level of the individual

• Macronutrient and kcalorie content of diet

• Fuel Sources: System (ETS)

• Immediate – ATP/PCr system

• Anaerobic – O2 not required.

• Glycolysis alone can support muscle contraction for ~ 30 seconds to 2 minutes.

• Aerobic – O2 required

When Exercise Begins… System (ETS)

• O2 hasn’t gotten to muscles yet

• ATP/CP during first seconds

• Mostly Anaerobic for several minutes

• Then, aerobic (along with anaerobic) for the rest of exercise time.

Fuel sources used during exercise Depend on: System (ETS)

• Intensity of activity

• Duration of activity

• Fitness level of the individual

• Macronutrient and kcalorie content of diet

Exercise Intensity System (ETS)

• VO2Max

• THR range

• RPE

• Mild Intensity Exercise (walking)

• ____________________ are the predominant fuel for ATP production (Krebs and ETS)

• (~60% FA and 40% CHO)

• Moderate Intensity Exercise (ie. Jogging, aerobics) System (ETS)

• Rely on

• Therefore, more _________ is used

• (e.g. ~50% CHO/50% Fat)

• The longer the duration, the greater use of ___________ as fuel

• (for exercise lasting several hours, 60-70% energy can be supplied by fat).

Fuel sources used during exercise Depend on: System (ETS)

• Intensity of activity

• Duration of activity

• Fitness level of the individual

• Macronutrient and kcalorie content of diet

Exercise Duration System (ETS)

FAT

CHO

rest

TIME

Fuel sources used during exercise Depend on: System (ETS)

• Intensity of activity

• Duration of activity

• Fitness level of the individual

• Macronutrient and kcalorie content of diet

Fitness Status System (ETS)

• Increased fitness status:

• Increased:

• Training Effects of Aerobic Exercise: System (ETS)

•  LDL (“bad”)cholesterol,  HDL (“good”)cholesterol

• strengthened heart, lungs

• curbed appetite

•  metabolic rate…

• Effects of Strength Training System (ETS)

•  constipation, diverticulosis, hemorrhoids, and poss. Colon CA

• speeds waste through colon

• stronger bones

Fuel sources used during exercise Depend on: System (ETS)

• Intensity of activity

• Duration of activity

• Fitness level of the individual

• Macronutrient and kcalorie content of diet

Diet System (ETS)

• High fat diet

• Lower fat, mod. prot, high CHO diet

Fatigue System (ETS)

• The inability to continue exercising at a desired level of intensity

• Inability to produce ATP to meet demands

• Other factors

• We’ll address fatigue in later sections.