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GERIATRICS. Dr. Meg- angela Christi Amores. Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Elderly. Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis Gout (Gouty arthritis) Osteoporosis. Gouty Arthritis.

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geriatrics

GERIATRICS

Dr. Meg-angela Christi Amores

musculoskeletal disorders in the elderly
Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Elderly
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Gout (Gouty arthritis)
  • Osteoporosis
gouty arthritis
Gouty Arthritis
  • a disease manifested by the build-up of uric acid crystals in the articular cartilage of joints, tendons, and surrounding tissues
  • the body may produce too much uric acid or the kidneys release too little
gouty arthritis1
Gouty Arthritis
  • excruciating, sudden, burning pain that occurs in a joint
  • accompanied by swelling, redness, warmth, and stiffness
  • usually affects the big toe, but can also affect the ankle, heel, instep, knee, wrist, elbow, fingers, and spine
  • Tophi formation
diagnosis
Diagnosis
  • diagnosis should be confirmed by needle aspiration of acutely or chronically involved joints or tophaceous deposits
  • strongly birefringent needle-shaped MSU crystals with negative elongation are typically seen both intracellularly and extracellularly
treatment
Treatment
  • Acute attack: NSAIDS, Colchicine, Icepacks, Intraarticularglucocorticoid injection
  • Hypouricemic therapy:
    • correction of the basic underlying defect, the hyperuricemia
    • ALLOPURINOL
    • PROBENECID
osteoporosis1
OSTEOPOROSIS
  • a condition characterized by the loss of bone density, resulting in fragile, or porous, bones.
  • Osteopenia is pre-osteoporosis. It is an early diagnosis of bone loss when bone scan readings are below normal but still above diagnostic criteria for osteoporosis
risk factors
Risk factors
  • Gender — Fractures from osteoporosis are twice as common in women than in men.
  • Age — Bones become weaker with age.
  • Race — Caucasians and Asians have the highest risk of osteoporosis.
  • Family History — Osteoporosis is hereditary.
  • Body Frame — Those with thin or small body frames are at the highest risk because they have less bone mass to draw from as they age
risk factors1
Risk factors
  • Tobacco Use — The use of tobacco contributes to weak bones.
  • Exposure to Estrogen— The greater a woman’s lifetime exposure to estrogen, the lower her risk of osteoporosis. For example, early menses or late menopause decreases one’s risk. The risk of osteoporosis increases if menopause occurs early or if the woman had a complete hysterectomy early in life.
  • Eating Disorders — Those with anorexia or bulimia have a greater risk.
  • Corticosteroid use
other risk factors
Other risk factors
  • SSRI use
  • Breast Cancer
  • Low calcium intake
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Excess caffeine consumption
  • Alcoholism
osteoporosis2
Osteoporosis
  • Fracture is the most common complication
  • Bone is brittle, lack structural strength, even minor injuries can lead to fractures
  • Most commonly involved: spine, hips, and wrists
osteoporosis3
Osteoporosis
  • As the bones become weakened by osteoporosis, the person may begin to experience back pain, loss of height with stooped posture, and fractures of the vertebrae, wrists, hips, or other bones
diagnosis1
Diagnosis
  • When a fracture occurs
  • Early stage: Bone scan or DEXA scan
treatment1
Treatment
  • Prevention
    • Recognize risk factors
    • Smoke and alcohol cessation
    • Regular exercise
    • Calcium or Vit D
    • Hormone therapy
treatment2
Treatment
  • Biphosphonate
      • inhibiting the breakdown of bone, preserving bone mass, and increasing the bone density in the spine and hip.
  • SERMs
  • Calcitonin