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Chapter 12 Gender Roles and Sexuality - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 12 Gender Roles and Sexuality. Male and Female. Genetic: XX=female; XY=male Gender roles: behaviors Communality vs. Agency Gender role norms: expectations Gender-role stereotypes: Overgeneralizations, inaccuracies Gender typing: acquiring the role. Gender Differences.

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male and female
Male and Female
  • Genetic: XX=female; XY=male
  • Gender roles: behaviors
    • Communality vs. Agency
  • Gender role norms: expectations
  • Gender-role stereotypes:
    • Overgeneralizations, inaccuracies
  • Gender typing: acquiring the role
gender differences
Gender Differences
  • Verbal: Females slightly higher
  • Spatial: Males higher
  • Math: Males highest and lowest
  • Aggression and riskiness: males
  • Compliant, tactful, cooperative: females
  • Nurturant, empathic, anxious: females
  • Vulnerability: males
social role hypothesis eagly
Social-role Hypothesis (Eagly)
  • Roles create stereotypes
  • Context and culture important
  • Changes occurring today
  • Psychological differences
    • Few and small
    • Important
  • Differential roles continue
infancy
Infancy
  • Differential treatment
  • Differential expectations
  • By 18 mo: categorical self
  • By 21/2 yr: gender identity
  • 18-24 mo: gender toy preference
childhood
Childhood
  • 3 yrs: gender stereotypes acquired
  • Gender rigidity until age 6
  • Gender constancy: by ages 4-6
  • Gender typed behavior by age 2 1/2
    • Greater by age 6
    • Stronger rules for boys
adolescence
Adolescence
  • Gender intensification
    • Pubertal hormonal changes
    • Preparation for reproductive activities
  • Gender and peer conformity
  • Later adolescence more flexible thinking
biosocial theory
Biosocial Theory
  • Money and Ehrhardt
  • Biological development
    • Presence of Y chromosome
    • Testosterone masculinizes brain and nervous system
  • Social influences and labeling at birth
  • Gender behavior through social interaction
psychoanalytic theory
Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Oedipus (boy) and Electra (girl) Complex
  • Research supports
    • Identification with same-sex parent
    • Preschool years important
    • Importance of father for both
    • Stronger male reaction
social learning theory
Social Learning Theory
  • Differential reinforcement
  • Observational learning
  • Fathers differentiate most
  • Internalization of parent views
  • Peers, media, books, etc
cognitive theories
Cognitive Theories
  • Kohlberg: self socialization
  • Stage-like changes
    • Gender identity: ages 2-3
      • Label themselves correctly
    • Gender stability: ages 3-4
      • Stable over time
    • Gender consistency: ages 5-7
      • Stable across situations
gender schema theory
Gender Schema Theory
  • Information processing
  • Gender schemata by ages 2-3
    • In-group/out-group schema
    • Own-sex schema
  • Child looks for confirming information in the environment
adulthood
Adulthood
  • Gender roles over the life-span
    • At marriage: greater differentiation
    • Birth of child: it increases more
      • Parental imperative
    • Middle age and older: Androgyny
      • Shift - does not mean switch
sexuality over the life span
Sexuality Over the Life Span
  • Infant sexuality: CNS arousal
  • Childhood
    • Learn about reproduction
    • Curiosity and exploration
    • Sexual abuse: like PTSD
  • Adolescence: sexual identity, orientation
  • Double standard: decline?
adult sexuality
Adult Sexuality
  • Most are married
  • Gradual declines
    • Individual differences
    • Married have more sex
  • Males sexual peak: age 18
  • Female sexual peak: age 38
older adults
Older Adults
  • Stereotype: Asexuality
  • Reality: decline
    • Diseases and disabilities
    • Social attitudes
    • Lack of a partner
  • Physiologically able in old age