ust 259 lecture 5
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
UST 259 Lecture 5

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 28

UST 259 Lecture 5 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

UST 259 Lecture 5. Hill Country, Glaciated Plateau, & Till Plains: Chapters 10 - 12. Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau Hill country. Forested Pioneers clearcut for fuel (iron industry) video Mining for bituminous coal (strip mining) Much is reforested Ohio’s oldest landscape

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'UST 259 Lecture 5' - kineta

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
ust 259 lecture 5

UST 259Lecture 5

Hill Country, Glaciated Plateau, & Till Plains:

Chapters 10 - 12

unglaciated appalachian plateau hill country
Unglaciated Appalachian PlateauHill country
  • Forested
  • Pioneers clearcut for fuel (iron industry) video
  • Mining for bituminous coal (strip mining)
  • Much is reforested
  • Ohio’s oldest landscape
  • Old river system and valleys still evident – not altered by glaciers
unglaciated appalachian plateau appalachian highlands
Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau Appalachian Highlands
  • Rock Layers
    • Middle to late Paleozoic acidic sandstones
    • Shale
    • Coal
    • Limestone, seldom
  • Knobs predominate along Ohio River & along Appalachian escarpment
  • ¾ of Hill country streams were

once a part of the ancient

TeaysRiver system

unglaciated appalachian plateau glacial impact
Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau Glacial impact
  • Unglaciated…yes, Unaffected…no.
  • Profound glacial impact
    • Redirected river systems
    • Filled valleys with water
    • Impacted plant/animal populations by genetically & physically isolating them
  • Unusual drainage patterns & constituents
    • Alkaline waters
    • Glacial outwash (sand or gravel carried by glaciers)

Rosyside Dace

unglaciated appalachian plateau climate weather
Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau Climate & Weather
  • Variety of microclimates present due to topographic variation
    • Frost pockets
    • Wind, humidity, evaporation
    • Sun exposure, surface temperature
  • Microclimate (along with varied soil and land surface types) have encouraged biological diversity in the Hill country
unglaciated appalachian plateau 3 plant animal communities predominate hill country
Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau 3 Plant/ Animal Communities Predominate Hill country
  • Upland Mixed Oak Forests
  • Mixed Mesophytic Forests
  • Lowland Forests
unglaciated appalachian plateau upland mixed oak forests
Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau Upland Mixed Oak Forests
  • Widespread in unglaciated Appalachian plateau
  • Canopy tree communities
    • White Oak is dominant species
    • Oak-Hickory communities
    • Loose, open tree canopy
  • Flower communities
    • Wood rush, fire pink, dittany
    • Beggar’s ticks, thorny greenbriar
unglaciated appalachian plateau upland mixed oak forests1
Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau Upland Mixed Oak Forests
  • Understory tree communities
    • Sassafras
      • Provide food for promethea silk moth larvae
unglaciated appalachian plateau upland mixed oak forests2
Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau Upland Mixed Oak Forests

Understory tree communities, continued

    • serviceberry
      • Provide early summer berries consumed by birds, & nesting site
    • Dogwood
    • Chestnut oaks
  • Mixed pines interspersed
    • Virginia Pine
    • Yellow Pine, White Pine
    • Both native &

Reforested pines

unglaciated appalachian plateau upland mixed oak forests3
Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau Upland Mixed Oak Forests
  • Small Mammals
    • Gray squirrels
    • Flying squirrels (rarely seen)
    • Hairy-tailed moles
    • Short-tailed shrew
    • Fox shrew
    • Pygmy shrew (rare)
    • Eastern wood rat
unglaciated appalachian plateau upland mixed oak forests4
Larger Mammals







Cottontail rabbits

Gray foxes

Other Animals

Turkey vultures, Black vultures

Swifts (fence lizards)

Large-headed skink


Puff adders

Poisonous copperhead

Timber rattlesnake

Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau Upland Mixed Oak Forests
unglaciated appalachian plateau mixed mesophytic forests
Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau Mixed Mesophytic Forests
  • Mesophytes: plants growing in area with average water supply
  • Trees
    • White & red oak, tuliptree, sugar maple, beech, wild black cherry, white ash, blackgum, red maple, shagbark hirckory, bitternute, white basswood, black walnut, cucumber tree (north), yellow buckeye (south)
    • Less common: hemlock
  • Mainly moderate climate
  • Moist, well-drained, moderately acidic soils
unglaciated appalachian plateau mixed mesophytic forests1
High tree and plant diversity

1000’s of types of plants, mosses, fungi, lichens

Undercanopy trees

Hornbeam (musclewood or ironwood)









Indian-pipe flower


Non-native flowering plants

Bigleaf magnolia

Umbrella magnolia


Flame azalea

Great rohododendron

Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau Mixed Mesophytic Forests
unglaciated appalachian plateau mixed mesophytic forests2
Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau Mixed Mesophytic Forests
  • Fauna
    • Deer, gray squirrels, raccoons, skunk, weasels, bats
    • Black rat snakes, box turtles, wild turkey gobblers, ruffed grouse, great horned owls
    • Zebra swallowtail butterfly (eats pawpaw leaves)
    • Cecropia moth (largest in US 6inch wingspan)
    • Leaf miners, ticks, mites, centipedes, sowbugs
    • Salamanders (vernal pools)
    • Red-tailed hawk, screech & barred owls, pileated & downy woodpeckers, chickadees, tufted titmouse (permanent residents)
unglaciated appalachian plateau lowland forests streams
Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau Lowland Forests & Streams
  • Trees (must survive on floodplains)
    • Black willow, non-native white willow, sycamore
    • River birch (south & in acid-mine drainage streams)
    • Cottonwood, silver maple, box elder (limey soils)
  • Origin of “Buckeye state” nickname
    • Michaux, 1818 botanist 1stnamed the tree species: yellow buckeye & Ohio buckeye
    • W.H.Harrisonused buckeye wood to create walking sticks for his presidential campaign
    • Species differ:
      • yellow buckeye= smooth seeds
      • Ohio buckeye= prickly, bumpy seeds
  • Rathbone elm
unglaciated appalachian plateau lowland forests streams1
Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau Lowland Forests & Streams
  • Common animals
    • Mink, muskrats, beaver, rarely seen river otters
  • Birds (waterfowl)
    • Kingfisher, phoebes, wood ducks
  • Aquatic species
    • Northern water snake, painted turtle, snapping turtle, brown soft-shell turtle, hellbender (salamander)
    • Muskellunge, fresh-water mussels

(historic food source)

unglaciated appalachian plateau mining
Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau Mining
  • Coal & clay mining
  • Why damaging?
    • Bound with sulfur…causes environmental damage when released during mining
  • Acid mine drainage
  • If abated, waterways may recover (didn’t begin until post-WWII)
  • Many are not abated due to costs
  • Small scale strip-mining (pre-WWI) gave way to larger scale mining efforts over time
unglaciated appalachian plateau apples
Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau Apples
  • Rome Beauty
    • 1817
    • Named 1848
  • Gallia Beauty
    • From a Rome Beauty seedling
    • Named 1865
glaciated plateau allegheny plateau geology
Glaciated Plateau (Allegheny plateau) Geology
  • Glacial till weathered into rich agricultural soil
  • Bedrock (visible in roadcuts)
    • Limestone, shale, sandstone, conglomerate & coal, Pennsylvanian period
      • e.g. Sharon Sandstone
    • Shale & Sandstone, Mississipian
      • e.g. Berea Sandstone
    • Oldest rocks, Devonian
      • e.g. Chagrin Shale
  • Human utility of materials?
    • Quarried bedrock for building material
    • Clay & shale are also taken for brick, tile, pottery
    • Lesser presence of coal & gas
    • Rock salt mining
glaciated plateau glaciers landscape
Glaciated PlateauGlaciers & Landscape
  • How did glaciers impact landscape?
    • Influence on soil
    • Influence on topography
    • Influence on water
glaciated plateau plants
Glaciated PlateauPlants
  • Historic meeting point between N. Allegheny & Central Appalachian forests (noted during last 200 yrs)
    • White oak, like Appalachians
    • N. Hemlock forests similar to Allegheny woods in NY and PA
  • Most forests are 2ndary, regrown
  • Association of Northern and Southern species together on rare ecological islands
  • Deep glacial till deposits support widespread beech-maple forest growth
  • Maple syrup production (Geauga county)
  • Blueberries, clubmoss, pink ladyslipper like the acidic soils
glaciated plateau plants1
Glaciated PlateauPlants
  • Wildflowers
    • Painted trillium (very rare)
    • Purple trillium
    • Spring ephemerals
      • Spring beauties, anemones, Dutchman’s breeches, purple cresses
    • Mayapples
    • Wild phlox
  • Signal Tree
    • Bur Oak
    • N. of Akron off of Peck Rd.
    • Native Americans used it to designate crossing of Cuyahoga-Tuscarawas Portage & Cuyahoga Falls
glaciated plateau fauna animals
Glaciated PlateauFauna (Animals)
  • Settlers saw vast forests populated with
    • Wolf, elk, bear, mountain lion (mainly predatory)
  • Today, remaining forests populated with
    • Cottontail rabbit, red fox, raccoon, opossum, skunk, deer, woodchucks, weasel, muskrats (hearty, non-predatory to human species)
    • Birds, both resident and migratory
      • Robin, wood thrush, warblers, ruffed grouse, red tailed and coopers hawks, owls, bald eagles, tree swallows, veery…live on forest edges. Why?
    • Reptiles & amphibians
      • Red-bellied snake, Mountain dusky salamanders
  • Greater variety of landscape = greater diversity
till plains geology
Till PlainsGeology
  • Sedimentary bedrock (Ordovician through Devonian) (500 to 350 million years old)
    • Mainly limestone
    • Smaller areas of shale (youngest rocks present here)
    • Fossil-rich (particularly Ordovician rocks)
      • Marine invertebrates
      • Mainly primitive fish in Devonian rocks
  • Cincinnati Arch was created during Late Ordovician formation of Appalachian mtns (gently slopes, exposing bedrock, particularly in highest areas of arch)
  • Most bedrock covered by thick glacial till
  • Massive erosion (by the Teays River) eroded

away large portions of bedrock

till plains glaciation
Till PlainsGlaciation
  • Wisconsinan was most recent (peaked 20,000 years ago), traveling southward across the region
  • Advanced & retreated several times, leaving layers of impact
  • Created rolling hills
  • Campbell Hill, Ohio’s highest point, an end moraine
  • Kames & Eskers are extensive in some areas
  • Boulder belts
  • Illinoian glacier (older) left mainly ground moraine in its wake
till plains soils
Till PlainsSoils
  • Miamian soils
    • Loam/Clay loam till (south)
    • Clay rich till (Blount soils) (north)
  • Both high-lime & found in Wisconsinan till
  • Low-lime tills resulting in Alexandrian soils to east
  • Cincinnati soils, from Illinoian till (deeply weathered areas)
    • Eden soils present where bedrock exposed (erosion)
  • Soils here are formed primarily by parent material & time
till plains vegetation plants
Till PlainsVegetation (plants)
  • Settlers saw woodlands, forests & wet prairies
  • Today 95% of land is farm or urban
  • Agriculture mainly seen today
    • Corn, soybeans, wheat
  • 1st growth vegetation almost non-existent
  • Cedar Bog still remains…white cedar wetland
till plains fauna animals
Till PlainsFauna (Animals)
  • Intense farming has led to less diversity
  • Fish
    • Brook trout, chub
  • Amphibians
    • Striped chorus frog, small-mouth & tiger salamanders, cave salamander
  • Reptiles
    • Eastern garter snake, Butler’s garter snake blue racer, northern copperbelly, eastern massasauga, painted turtle
  • Birds (attracted to open fields & plains with forest nearby)
    • Kestrels, eastern meadowlark, horned lark, savannah sparrow, song sparrow, woodcock
    • Region is also a large migratory path for multitudes of birds
  • Small Mammals
  • Insects (Invertebrates)