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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Focus Four Hazard Training

For Masonry Construction

Module 3 – Fall Protection

Susan Harwood Grant Training Program

slide2

Disclaimer/Usage Notes

This material was produced under grant number SH-17793-SH8 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. 

Images shown may depict situations that are not in compliance with applicable OSHA requirements. These photos are clearly marked as non-compliant.

It is not the intent of RMMI to provide compliance-based training in this presentation, the intent is more to address Focus Four hazard awareness in the masonry construction industry, and to recognize overlapping hazards present in many construction workplaces.

It is the responsibility of the employer, its subcontractors, and its employees to comply with all pertinent rules and regulations in the jurisdiction in which they work. Copies of all OSHA regulations are available from www.osha.gov. This presentation is intended to discuss Federal regulations only. If this training is held in a state that is operating under an OSHA-approved State Plan, State OSHA requirements for that state must be included in the training. It is assumed that individuals using this presentation or content to augment their training programs will be "qualified" to do so.

Developed under an OSHA Susan Harwood Grant, #SH-17793-SH8, by the Rocky Mountain Masonry Institute, Denver, Colorado

training objectives

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

1

Training Objectives

After completing this unit, you will:

-Be aware of the requirement for fall protection for masonry work.

-Be able to recognize fall hazards associated with masonry work.

-Be familiar with fall protection devices.

-Be knowledgeable of safe work practices.

references

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

2

References

29 CFR 1926 Subparts L & M

scaffold erection

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

3

Scaffold Erection

The employer shall have a competent person determine the feasibility and safety of providing fall protection for employees erecting or dismantling supported scaffolds. A Competent Person is "one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them."

scaffold erection1

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

4

Scaffold Erection

The employer shall have each employee who is involved in erecting, disassembling, moving, operating, repairing or maintaining a scaffold trained by a competent person to recognize any hazards associated with the work in question.

scaffold erection2

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

5

Scaffold Erection

Inspect all scaffold components prior to erecting scaffold. Look for bend frames and cross braces, broken pins, damaged planks, etc.

Photos depict hazardous condition

scaffold erection3

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

6

Scaffold Erection

Supported scaffold poles, legs, posts, frames, and uprights shall bear on base plates AND mud sills or other adequate foundations.

scaffold erection4

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

7

Scaffold Erection

Photos depict hazardous condition

scaffold erection5

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

8

Scaffold Erection

Photos depict hazardous condition

scaffold erection6

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

9

Scaffold Erection

Ladders shall be installed as soon as scaffold erection has progressed to a point that permits safe installation and use.

scaffold erection7

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

10

Scaffold Erection

Guardrail systems shall be installed before the scaffold is released for use by employees other than the erection crew.

Photo depicts hazardous condition

scaffold erection8

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

11

Scaffold Erection

The employer shall have a competent person determine the feasibility and safety of providing fall protection for employees erecting or dismantling supported scaffolds. Employers are required to provide fall protection for employees erecting or dismantling supported scaffolds where the installation and use of such protection is feasible and does not create a greater hazard. The employer must be able to explain and support a decision that it creates a greater hazard. Even if the competent person determines that being tied off during erection is not feasible, a harness/lanyard must still be worn by the workers.

Photo depicts hazardous condition

scaffold erection9

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

12

Scaffold Erection
scaffold erection10

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

13

Scaffold Erection

Where uplift can occur, scaffold frames shall be pinned together.

slide16

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

14

Scaffold Erection

  • No paint on wood platforms
  • Use scaffold grade wood
  • Component pieces used must match and be of the same type
  • Erect on stable and level ground
  • Lock wheels and braces before using mobile scaffold

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide17

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

15

Scaffold Erection

Each platform on all working levels of scaffolds shall be fully planked or decked between the front uprights and the guardrail supports.

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide18

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

16

Scaffold Erection

Photos depict hazardous condition

slide19

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

17

Scaffold Erection

Platforms shall be installed so that the space between adjacent units and the space between the platform and the uprights is no more than 1 inch wide, except where the employer can demonstrate that a wider space is necessary.

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide20

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

18

Scaffold Erection

Each end of a planked deck, unless cleated or otherwise secured by hooks or equivalent means, shall extend over the centerline of it’s support at least 6 inches but not more than 12 inches.

slide21

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

20

19

Scaffold Erection

Photos depict hazardous condition

slide22

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

20

Scaffold Erection

Plank overlapping will only occur over supports. The overlap will not be less than 12 inches unless the platforms are nailed/screwed together or otherwise restrained to prevent movement.

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide23

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

21

Scaffold Erection

The height of the scaffold should not be more than four times its minimum base dimension unless guys, ties, or braces are used.

20’

5’

slide24

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

22

Scaffold Erection

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide25

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

23

Scaffold Access

When scaffold platforms are more than 2 feet above or below a point of access, portable ladders, hook-on ladders, attachable ladders, stair towers, ramps, walkways, integral prefabricated scaffold access, or direct access from another scaffold, structure, personnel hoist, or similar surface shall be used.

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide26

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

24

Scaffold Access

Hook-on and attachable ladders shall have a minimum rung length of

11 1/2 inches and have uniformly spaced rungs with a maximum spacing between rungs of 16 3/4 inches.

slide27

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

25

Scaffold Access

  • Choose the correct type of portable ladder:
  • Type IAA Special Duty can handle up to 375 lbs.
  • Type IA Heavy Duty can handle up to 300 lbs.
  • Type I ladders are rated up to 250 lbs.
  • Type II ladders are rated up to 225lbs.
  • Type III ladders(light duty) up to 200lbs
slide28

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

26

Scaffold Access

  • Rungs must be intact and free from grease or oil
  • Make sure there are no visible defects on the ladder (missing, cracked or loose rungs, missing safety feet, or signs of rot)
  • Metal ladders should not be dented or bent
  • All braces are secure
slide29

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

27

Scaffold Access

Photos depict hazardous condition

slide30

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

28

Scaffold Access

  • Use the 4 to 1 rule: Set the ladder 1 foot out for every 4 feet up to the point of support. (Rungs are normally 1 ft apart, so its easy to figure the angle).
slide31

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

29

Scaffold Access

  • All ladders must extended 36 inches above the landing
  • Make sure the base of the ladder is tied or held and the top is anchored

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide32

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

30

Scaffold Access

Photos depict hazardous condition

slide33

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

31

Scaffold Access

If used, stair towers must have stairrails/handrails as well as guardrails on the open sides of all landings.

slide34

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

32

Scaffold Access

Integral prefabricated scaffold access frames shall:

Be specifically designed and constructed for use as ladder rungs and have a rung length of at least 8 inches.

slide35

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

33

Scaffold Access

These rungs are at least 11 ½ inches wide and no more than 16 ¾ apart and can be used as a work platform for scaffold erection and for scaffold access by users.

slide36

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

34

Scaffold Access

These rungs are not at least 11 ½ inches wide so they CANNOT be used for access by scaffold users. They can be used for access during scaffold erection/dismantling as long as they are not more than 22 inches apart vertically.

slide37

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

35

Scaffold Access

Direct access to or from another surface shall be used only when the scaffold is not more than 14 inches horizontally and not more than 24 inches vertically from the other surface.

24”

14”

slide38

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

36

Scaffold Access

Cross braces on tubular welded frame scaffolds shall not be used as a means of access or egress, even by erectors building or dismantling the scaffold.

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide39

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

37

Scaffold Access

Photos depict hazardous condition

slide40

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

38

Scaffold Use

The front edge of all platforms shall not be more than 14 inches from the face of the work, unless guard-rail systems are erected along the front edge and/or personal fall arrest systems are used.

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide41

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

39

Scaffold Use

Each scaffold walkway shall be at least 18 inches wide.

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide42

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

40

Scaffold Use

The top rail shall be installed between 38 & 45 inches above the deck shall be provided on the open sides and ends of each working level when it is 10 feet or more above a lower surface.

slide43

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

41

Scaffold Use

Each top rail shall be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force applied in any downward or horizontal direction at any point along it’s top edge of at least 200 pounds.

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide44

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

42

Scaffold Use

Mid rails, screens, etc. of a guardrail system shall be installed midway between the top rail and the deck and be capable of withstanding, without failure, at least 150 pounds.

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide45

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

43

Scaffold Use

Photos depict hazardous condition

slide46

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

44

Scaffold Use

Guardrails shall also be surfaced to prevent injury to an employee from punctures or lacerations, and to prevent snagging of clothing.

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide47

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

45

Scaffold Use

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide48

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

46

Scaffold Use

Cross bracing is acceptable in place of a midrail when the crossing point of the two braces is between 20 and 30 inches above the work platform

. . .

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide49

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

47

Scaffold Use

. . . or as a top rail when the crossing point of the two braces is between 38 and 48 inches above the work platform.

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide50

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

48

Scaffold Use

Fall protection must also be provided at the exposed ends of the walk planks as well as openings in front of the workers.

slide51

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

49

Scaffold Use

Photos depict hazardous condition

slide52

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

50

Scaffold Use

Makeshift devices, such as, but not limited to, boxes, barrels and ladders, shall not be used on top of scaffold platforms to increase the working level height of employees.

Photos depict hazardous condition

slide53

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

51

Scaffold Use

Employees shall be prohibited from working on scaffolds with snow, ice, or other slippery material except as necessary for removal of such materials. Do not work on scaffolds during storms or high winds.

slide54

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

52

Scaffold Use

Mason was working on the third level of a tubular welded frame scaffold which was covered with ice and snow.

The scaffold was not fully decked, there was no guardrail and no access ladder.

The worker slipped and fell head first 20 feet to the pavement below.

slide55

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

53

Scaffold Use

The use of shore, lean-to or makeshift scaffolds is prohibited.

Photos depict hazardous condition

slide56

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

54

Forklifts/Aerial Lifts

Using a forklift as an aerial lift can only be done when the following requirements are met:

The forklift manufacturer approves the use of their equipment for such purposes

An engineered/approved platform meeting the OSHA requirements for fall protection is used

slide57

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

55

Forklifts/Aerial Lifts

Photos courtesy of Lifting Technologies

slide58

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

56

Forklifts/Aerial Lifts

The following requirements must be met as well:

1. The work platform must be equipped with standard guardrails and must be firmly secured to the lifting carriage or forks.

2. The hydraulic system must be designed such that the lift mechanism will not drop faster than 135 feet per minute in the event of a failure in any part of the system.

3. The operator must be in the driving seat while workers are on the platform.

4. The operator must be in the driving seat while raising or lowering the platform.

5. The area between the personnel on the platform and the mast must be guarded to prevent contact with chains or other pinch points.

slide59

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

57

Forklifts/Aerial Lifts

Photos depict hazardous condition

slide60

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

58

Forklifts/Aerial Lifts

When using extensible and articulating boom platforms a harness shall be worn and a lanyard attached to the boom or basket when working from the lift. Employees shall always stand firmly on the floor of the basket, and shall not sit or climb on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position.

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide61

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

59

Forklifts/Aerial Lifts

When working in a straight up and down scissors type lift, a harness/ lanyard is not required.

slide62

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

60

Forklifts/Aerial Lifts

Employee was operating an aerial lift, with an extendable boom rotating work platform.

The boom was fully extended and the machine apparently ran over some bricks, causing the boom to flex or spring, throwing the employee from the basket.

The employee fell 37 feet to a concrete surface.

slide63

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

61

General Scaffolding

COMPETENT PERSON

Person capable of identifying and having authority to promptly correct hazards

Determines if it’s safe to work on a scaffold during storms or high winds

Trains workers to recognize hazards

Selects qualified workers to conduct work

slide64

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

62

General Scaffolding

Competent person inspects scaffolds for visible defects before each shift and after any alterations or unusual occurrences.

Defective parts must be immediately repaired or replaced.

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide65

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

63

General Scaffolding

Photos depict hazardous condition

slide66

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

64

General Fall Protection

General fall protection is required when working above 6 feet in construction. When working on a silo, ensure guardrail chains are closed.

slide67

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

65

General Fall Protection

When masonry work must be done on a roof or other elevated surface, a guardrail system must be installed or a Personal Fall Arrest system must be used above 6 feet.

slide68

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

66

General Fall Protection

When performing overhand bricklaying work, a Controlled Access Zone may be used as a method of fall protection, as long as masons do not reach more than 10 inches below the platform on which they are standing or kneeling. "Overhand bricklaying" is "the process of laying bricks and masonry units such that the surface of the wall to be jointed is on the opposite side of the wall from the mason, requiring the mason to lean over the wall to complete the work. It includes mason tending, maintaining supplies of bricks and mortar and electrical installation incorporated into the brick wall during the overhand bricklaying process."

slide69

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

67

General Fall Protection

On a construction site, floor holes greater than 2 inches in any dimension must be covered or guarded. If covered, the cover must be marked as such and secured.

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide70

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

68

General Fall Protection

There must be a stairway or ladder at points of access where there is an elevation break of 19 inches or more. At least one point of access must be kept clear.

Break in elevation

19 inches

slide71

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

69

General Fall Protection

Stairways with four or more risers or more than 30 inches high must have a stair rail along each unprotected side or edge and have at least one handrail

slide72

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

70

General Fall Protection

Photos depict hazardous condition

slide73

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

71

General Fall Protection

Only use pan stairs if filled with filler material at least to the top edge of each pan, has stair rails/ handrails installed and the unprotected sides of landings have a standard 42 inch guardrail system.

Landing

Pan

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide74

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

72

General Fall Protection

Stair rails must be able to withstand a force of 200 pounds outward and downward along its entire length.

slide75

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

73

Summary

Remember, falls may occur:

While climbing on or off the scaffold

Working on unguarded scaffold platforms

When scaffold platforms or planks fail

Photos depict hazardous condition

slide76

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

74

Summary

Guardrails

Install along open sides & ends

Front edge of platforms not more than 14 inches from the work, unless using guardrails and/or Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS)

Top rails - 38 to 45 inches tall

Midrails halfway between toprail and platform

Toeboards at least 3-1/2 inches high

Photo depicts

hazardous condition

slide77

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

75

Summary

You must be trained how to properly use a PFAS

PFAS include anchorage, lanyard and body harness

Can use PFAS instead of guardrails on some scaffolds

Use PFAS & guardrails on suspension scaffolds

Use PFAS on erectors and dismantlers unless it creates a greater hazard

slide78

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

76

Summary

Use appropriate scaffold construction methods

Proper scaffold access

Always have a competent person for the scaffold

slide79

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

77

Summary

Platforms must:

be fully planked or decked with no more than 1 inch gaps

be able to support its weight & 4 times maximum load

be at least 18 inches wide if used as a walkway

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide80

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

78

Summary

  • No gaps over 14 inches at front edge of platforms
  • Each abutted end of plank must rest on a separate support surface
  • Overlap platforms at least 12 inches over supports, unless restrained to prevent movement

Photos depict hazardous condition

slide81

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

79

Summary

Provide access when scaffold platforms are more than 2 feet above or below a point of access

Permitted types of access:

-Ladders, such as portable, hook-on, attachable, stairway type, and built-ins

-Stair towers

-Ramps and walkways

May use building stairs and come out window

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide82

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

80

Summary

  • No access by crossbraces
  • When using ladders, bottom rung no more than 24 inches high
  • Can use some end frames
  • Can access from another scaffold, structure or hoist

Photo depicts hazardous condition

slide83

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

81

Summary

      • Train employees on scaffold hazards and procedures to control the hazards.
      • The training must include:
      • -Nature of electrical, fall, and falling object hazards
      • -How to deal with electrical hazards and fall protection systems
      • -Proper use of the scaffold
      • -Scaffold load capacities
  • Retrain as necessary
review questions

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

82

REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • True or False?
    • Erectors & dismantlers must have additional training in safe procedures.
    • Scaffolds must always have mudsills beneath the baseplates.
    • Guardrails must be installed before the scaffold is used by masons/hoddies.
    • Erectors only need to wear a harness if 100% tie-off is feasible.
    • Brickwashers can work with only two planks as a work platform.
review questions1

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

83

REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • True or False?
    • Planks can be nailed or screwed together if 12 inches of overlap is not possible.
    • Scaffolds only one frame high can be climbed without using a ladder.
    • Workers above 10 feet can remove the midrail to accept a mud tub without using other fall protection.
    • Workers do not need fall protection on the walk planks when laying block.
    • Workers can stand on the midrail of a scissors lift if they are tied off.
review questions2

SUBPARTS

Masonry Fall Protection

L & M

84

REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • True or False?
    • The Competent Person must be a foreman.
    • You can climb through a window onto the scaffold if you only step up/down 28 inches.
    • Floor holes greater than 2 inches wide must be covered or guarded.
    • Ladders must be tied off at the top only if the scaffold is over 20 feet high
    • Scaffold training is only required when you are first hired by your employer.