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Electronic National Lotteries. Jessica Greer. Agenda. Large-scale electronic lotteries: What are they good for? (absolutely nothin’?) Requirements for electronic lottery systems Lotteries vs. Casinos Konstantinou’s protocol – does it meet the requirements?. Large-scale E-Lotteries.

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electronic national lotteries

Electronic National Lotteries

Jessica Greer

CS 551: CRyptography Applications Bistro

agenda
Agenda
  • Large-scale electronic lotteries: What are they good for? (absolutely nothin’?)
  • Requirements for electronic lottery systems
  • Lotteries vs. Casinos
  • Konstantinou’s protocol – does it meet the requirements?

CS 551: CRyptography Applications Bistro

large scale e lotteries
Large-scale E-Lotteries
  • Advantages over mechanical systems:
    • Fast (high frequency)
    • Dynamic
    • Accessible
    • Efficient micropayment scheme

CS 551: CRyptography Applications Bistro

requirements
Requirements
  • Uniform distribution of generated numbers
  • Unpredictable by anyone (even with access to history, audit logs)
  • Unalterable – drawing and winner declaration
  • Able to detect interference, errors (UK Lotto)
  • Standardized, certifiable

CS 551: CRyptography Applications Bistro

requirements cont d
Requirements, cont’d..
  • Under regular scrutiny
  • Details publicly available
  • High availability
  • Scalability

CS 551: CRyptography Applications Bistro

casinos vs lotteries
Casinos vs. Lotteries
  • Schneier’s solution: collaboration of gamblers for random number generation
  • Lotteries: Users’ selections independent of one another

CS 551: CRyptography Applications Bistro

protocol overview
Protocol Overview

Initialization: Generator and verifier exchange keys for encryption, signature

CS 551: CRyptography Applications Bistro

protocol overview8
Protocol Overview

1. Generator draws sequence of bits from TRNG for seeding

CS 551: CRyptography Applications Bistro

protocol overview9
Protocol Overview

1. Generator draws sequence of bits from TRNG for seeding

2. Generator executes bit-commitment protocol* on seed bit sequence

* Seed commitment based on RSA encryption & RIPEMD-160 hashing

CS 551: CRyptography Applications Bistro

protocol overview10
Protocol Overview

2. Generator executes bit-commitment protocol* on seed bit sequence

3. Resulting packet sent to Verifier, which signs the commitment

* Seed commitment based on RSA encryption & RIPEMD-160 hashing

CS 551: CRyptography Applications Bistro

protocol overview11
Protocol Overview

4. Verifier sends generator a hash of file containing the coupons

3. Resulting packet sent to Verifier, which signs the commitment

CS 551: CRyptography Applications Bistro

protocol overview12
Protocol Overview

5. Generator concatenates seed with hash value from Verifier*

4. Verifier sends generator a hash of file containing the coupons

*State-stamping step – freezes coupons

CS 551: CRyptography Applications Bistro

protocol overview13
Protocol Overview

6. Generator feeds first part of original TRNG-generated bit sequence through Naor-Reingold function

5. Generator concatenates seed with hash value from Verifier

CS 551: CRyptography Applications Bistro

protocol overview14
Protocol Overview

7. Resulting bit stream XORed with 2nd part of initial seed; this result is sent through several pseudorandom number generators

6. Generator feeds first part of original TRNG-generated bit sequence through Naor-Reingold function

CS 551: CRyptography Applications Bistro

protocol overview15
Protocol Overview

8. Generator opens initial random seed bits (de-commitment). Encrypts and signs seed & numbers; sends file to Verifier. Stops.

7. Resulting bit stream XORed with 2nd part of initial seed; this result is sent through several pseudorandom number generators

CS 551: CRyptography Applications Bistro

protocol overview16
Protocol Overview

9. Verifier authenticates file, decrypts it, recovers winning numbers + seed used to generate them

8. Generator opens initial random seed bits (de-commitment). Encrypts and signs seed & numbers; sends file to Verifier. Stops.

CS 551: CRyptography Applications Bistro

protocol overview17
Protocol Overview

9. Verifier authenticates file, decrypts it, recovers winning numbers + seed used to generate them

10. Verifier checks that Generator has committed to seed

CS 551: CRyptography Applications Bistro

protocol overview18
Protocol Overview

10. Verifier uses seed to duplicate Generator’s tasks. If results match, finalize; if not, restart with Gen2

10. Verifier checks that Generator has committed to seed

CS 551: CRyptography Applications Bistro

requirements19
Requirements
  • Uniform distribution of generated numbers – TRNG’s + Naor-Reingold
  • Unpredictable by anyone (even with access to history) - same
  • Unalterable – drawing and winner declaration – Verifier auditing
  • Able to detect interference, errors (UK Lotto) – Verifier auditing, audit logs
  • Standardized, certifiable - ?

CS 551: CRyptography Applications Bistro

requirements cont d20
Requirements, cont’d..
  • Under periodic scrutiny – alert function in case of discrepancies
  • Details publicly available – paper…
  • High availability – depends on hardware; some redundancy built-in
  • Scalability - ?

CS 551: CRyptography Applications Bistro

uk s version
UK’s version

http://www.national-lottery.co.uk/player/p/home/home.do

CS 551: CRyptography Applications Bistro