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On your Left Side:. Write down what you already know about South Africa and/or apartheid. Where do you know this information from? Book you read Movie you saw TV program you saw. 2012 Apartheid and South Africa. On your Left Side:.

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on your left side
On your Left Side:
  • Write down what you already know about South Africa and/or apartheid.
  • Where do you know this information from?
    • Book you read
    • Movie you saw
    • TV program you saw
on your left side1
On your Left Side:
  • Diagram or draw out a timeline and write down the main events from the next couple of slides.
south africa
South Africa
  • In the 18th century Dutch settlers, who called themselves Boers, began expanding toward the north and east.
  • Believed they were predestined by God to claim this land.
  • Gradually began pushing onto the interior.
early history a time line
Early HistoryA Time Line
  • 1806 – British seize Cape of Good Hope
  • 1867 – Discovery of Gold
  • 1886 – Discovery of Diamonds
  • 1889 – 1902 – The Boer War (British and Dutch settlers)
  • 1902 – The beginning of apartheid
  • 1990’s – The end of apartheid
south africa1
South Africa
  • British gained possession of Cape Colony in 1815; abolished slavery in 1833.
  • Boers felt British policy destroyed their traditional social order, based on racial separation,
  • Also believed it would undermine white predominance, which they saw as God's own will.
  • British intrusion precipitated the “ Great Trek.”
  • Starting in 1835 10,000 Boers (voortrekkers) moved northeast into interior and ultimately established Orange Free State and Transvaal.
1835 the great trek
1835: The “Great Trek”

Feeling the British policy destroyed their political and social order, based on racial separation and that white dominance was “God’s own will,”10,000 Boers, or Voortrekkers, left Cape Town to escape British rule on a 1,000 mile migration inland, known as the“Great Trek.”

south africa2
South Africa
  • At time of white settlement of the Cape, Xhosa groups were living far inland.
  • Since around 1770, they had been confronted with the Trek Boers or Voortrekkers who approached from the west.
  • Both Boers and Xhosa were stock-farmers. The competition for grazing land led first to quarrels between the two groups, and eventually it came to a number of wars.
  • In the middle of the 19th century, all land formerly inhabited by Xhosa was in the hands of white settlers.
south africa3
South Africa
  • Towards the end of 18th century, all over southern Africa small tribal groups were amalgamating into larger communities.
  • Not a peaceful process, but result of protracted wars.
  • Rise of Zulu Kingdom falls into this period.
  • Through incredible atrocities and cruelties Zulu warrior Shaka gained control over a number of Zulu clans.
  • Expanded his territory systematically as his warriors raided Zulu villages and burnt them down.
  • Women and children gored to death; young men called up and chiefs tortured and forced into allegiance.
south africa4
South Africa
  • Voortrekkers failed to negotiate with Zulus secession of land for settling and grazing.
  • They had endured a number of catastrophic assaults.
  • Assembled at the Ncome River for a decisive battle on December 16, 1838.
  • 464 Boers under command of Andries Pretorius defeated 10,000 Zulu warriors.
  • Became known as the Battle of Blood River.
south africa5
South Africa
  • Boers did not ascribe military victory to technically superior armaments; interpreted it instead as a sign from God.
  • Before battle, they prayed and made a vow that if God would grant them victory over Zulus, they would commemorate the event annually.
  • Afterward they believed even more strongly that white predominance over blacks is God's own will.

Voortrekker Monument, outside Pretoria

south africa6
South Africa
  • Port Natal (later re-named Durban) was a frequent port-of-call for sailors and merchants and in 1823 a settlement started to develop.
  • Zulus regarded Natal as their territory; tolerated white settlers, because port was useful as a trading post.
  • When Voortrekkers came to Natal in 1836 fierce battles with Zulus occurred.
  • Short-lived peace after Zulu defeat at Battle of Blood River in 1838.
  • Soon British and Voortrekkers battled for Natal.
  • Ultimately, the British prevailed and in 1844, Natal became a Crown Colony; the Voortrekkers retreated.
a series of boer struggles
A Series of Boer Struggles

1838: Boers defeat the Zulu nation in the Battle of Blood River in their fight to obtain land the Zulu tribe was occupying.

  • : British take over Natal.

1852-1854: Boers travel further north and establish the Orange Free State and Transvaal as independent republics.

1870-1886: Diamonds deposits are discovered in Kimberley and gold deposits are discovered in Transvaal causing an influx of British immigrants and black Africans searching for work and fortune.

1880-1881: Anglo-Boer Wars

more struggles
More struggles

1899: Boer War erupted as a result of Afrikaaners upset over Continual British migration inland to the mining regions.

1899-1902: British established Afrikaner civilian camps where epidemics broke out and killed 26,000 prisoners.

1902: Boers surrendered to British rule

1910: British award independence to South Africa. They believed only white to be capable of self-government. Blacks were barred from voting and Afrikaans was made the official language.

a country divided
A Country Divided
  • White South Africans made up only 21.5% of the total population and of these, an English-speaking minority dominated government and business in the cities.
  • Most whites were Afrikaans-speaking Boers, mostly farmers and still bitter about the war
  • The majority black population, 67%, included many different groups of people including Zulu and Xhosa of the Transkei region. Other groups were much smaller.
By 1910, black Africans owned less than 10% of a country their ancestors completely controlled.
  • 1913, the South African Parliament passed a Native Land Act that limited the blacks’ ownership of land even more.
    • Apartheid placed restrictions on how people could live. For example, black South Africans were made to live in tiny clusters of homes called townships.
other ethnic groups
Other Ethnic Groups
  • Coloureds: 9% of the population.
  • Indian immigrants: 2.5% of the population.

Both groups had varying rights in the Cape, but were not treated as equals by most whites

The Native Homeland Act

separated different African

tribes into segregated


This act set aside

7.3% of the country’s land

Aside as reservations and

banded black Africans

from buying land outside

these areas.

road to apartheid
Road to Apartheid

In 1912, the South African Native National

Congress (later known as the ANC – 1923)

was founded to unite black Africans and

defend their interests.

In 1913, the Afrikaaner Nationalist Party was


  • African National Congress (ANC) was created to aide in the civil rights movement.
peaceful protest
Peaceful Protest
  • 1912, a young Indian Lawyer living in Cape Town named Mohandas K. Gandhi became outraged after being thrown off the train for sitting in a “white’s only” seat.
  • He organized a peaceful protest march, inspiring some black South Africans to form a civil rights organization.
whites asserting control
Whites Asserting Control
  • In 1924, the Labour Party defeats the South African Party.
  • Led by James Hertzog, South Africa became more independent of British control and favored the interests of whites, especially Afrikaners.
  • Afrikaans is confirmed as an official language along with English.
south africa divided by race
South Africa: Divided by Race
  • Decolonization in South Africa was tainted by the clash between white and black citizens of the newly free country.
  • The government that declared freedom from Britain was controlled by the white minority, largely descended from the Dutch Boers.
  • These Afrikaners practiced the policy of apartheid (extreme racial segregation).
  • South Africa is one of the world’s richest sources of gold and diamonds.
  • Between the 60’s and 90’s, the white government of South Africa turned the country into the wealthiest, most modern, and most industrialized on the continent.


Racial Separation

  • 1948, racial discrimination heightened when Afrikaner-dominated National Party began to run South African government
  • Instituted policy of apartheid, “apartness” in Afrikaner language
  • Apartheid policy divided into four racial groups: White, Black, Colored (mixed ancestry), Asian
  • Attempted to create greater separation between whites, nonwhites, impose harsh controls

South Africa

In the early 1900s South Africa was run by white Afrikaners—descendants of the original Dutch settlers. Even though South Africa had received independence from Great Britain in 1910, nonwhites in South Africa were not free under the Afrikaner government.

Apartheid laws banned interracial marriages, and placed further restrictions on African ownership of land and businesses.

  • a method of “divide and rule” to counteract the so-called "black danger" Afrikaner rulers saw Africans as threatening to overrun or engulf them by their sheer numbers.
  • Brutal racism: imprisonment, police killings and murder

“Apartheid” is a word meaning


Black South Africans, who made up 75%

of the population, and other non-white

People lived under government

institutionalized racial segregation from

1948 to 1994.

Non-whites were stripped of citizenship

and necessities such as medical care and


what is apartheid
What is Apartheid?
  • Apartheid= separateness
  • A policy of racial discrimination
  • Began in 1948 by South Africa’s government
  • Black South Africans (more than 75% of pop.) were forced to live under strict segregation
hendrik verwoerd

Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958 until his assassination in 1966

“Architect of Apartheid”

on your left side2
On your Left Side:
  • Imagine you are one of the black non-citizens of South Africa.
  • How would you feel about what is happening in your country? Why?
  • What would you do about it? Why?

Citizenship Denied

Laws Harsh on Blacks

  • Under apartheid, only white South Africans could vote, hold political office
  • Blacks made up nearly 75 percent of population, were denied South African citizenship
  • Restricted to certain occupations, very little pay
  • Apartheid laws especially harsh on blacks in South Africa
  • Required to carry passes, identity books
  • Also faced imprisonment if police found them in an area for more than 72 hours without pass

Apartheid Laws

looking into apartheid
1948-Racism institutionalized

-Marriage between blacks and whites prohibited

-”white-only” jobs sanctioned

1950-Population Registration Act

-Divided South Africans into white, black (Africans), and colored (mixed descent)

-Based on appearance, social acceptance, and descent

-Blacks-forced to carry “pass books” holding fingerprints, photograph, and information on access to non-black areas

Looking into Apartheid…

The History of Apartheid in South Africa

apartheid marriages and business
Apartheid- Marriages and business
  • Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act 55 of 1949, prohibiting marriages between white people and people of other races
  • Blacks were not allowed to run a business in the areas that were meant for white South Africans.
some rules of apartheid
Africans had to be legally classified (Black, White, Colored, Indian)

Africans were not allowed to have interracial marriages

Africans had to carry registration cards with their race indicated

Africans had to be separated publicly (restaurants, hospitals, beaches, theaters, pools, restrooms, etc)

Africans also had separate educational systems (lower standards for blacks)

Some Rules of Apartheid
apartheid no rights for non whites
Apartheid No Rights for Non-whites
  • No right to vote
  • No ownership of land
  • No right to move freely
  • No right to free speech
  • No right to protest the government

Apartheid separated

the whites from

the non-whites

what does kaffir mean
What does Kaffir mean?
  • The word Kaffir is an ethnic slur that is mostly used in Jamaica and South Africa.
  • Referring to someone from Jamaica or South Africa as Kaffir would be the same as referring to an African-American person as the “N-word.”
  • This usage and “strength” of Kaffir is fading away.
a journey of inequality
A Journey of Inequality

1939-Representation of Voters Act weakened the political rights for Africans and allows them to vote only for white representatives.



1946-African mine workers are paid twelve times less than their white counterparts. Over 75,000 Africans go on strike in support of higher wages. Over 1000 workers are injured or killed before police violence forces them to end the strike

1948-The Afrikaner Nationalist Party gains control of the government and passed the first of 317 Apartheid laws, separating whites from blacks.



1951-The African National Congress (ANC), a political organization for Africans, encourages peaceful resistance to Apartheid Laws. The government reacts by arresting more people.



1950-1953-Multiple Apartheid laws are passed restricting the movement and rights of blacks and requiring pass books. From 1948-1973, over ten million Africans were arrested because their passes were not in order

mine workers in south africa
Mine Workers in South Africa

Working conditions were terrible in the mines, with miners earning only a few dollars a day and being forced to be separate from their families for months or years at a time.

apartheid public facilities and jobs
Apartheid-Public facilities and jobs
  • Medical care and other public services and provided black people with service inferior to those of Whites
  • Practical separation of residential areas
  • Separation of public institutions e.g. schools and hospitals.
  • Separation of jobs, ”jobs for whites only”
  • Separate use of facilities like toilets, chairs, bus stops, stair-cases etc.
  • Black buses stopped at black bus stops and white buses at white ones.
  • Trains, hospitals and ambulances were segregated
on your left side3
On your Left Side:
  • Which of these laws makes you most angry? Why?

On your Left Side:

  • What is the main point the cartoonist is making about apartheid?
  • How can you tell?
1951 bantu authorities act
1951 Bantu Authorities Act

Created basis for ethnic government in African reserves or “homelands”

Blacks had no rights in South Africa. Their rights were restricted to the so called “homelands”.

The White Government had complete control over the homelands.

By Mzoli Mncanca



  • Townships
  • Apartheid placed limits on where blacks could live
  • Required to live in impoverished areas of cities called townships
  • Further Segregation
  • Restricted businesses allowed in townships, kept people poor
  • 1950s, created rural “homelands” for tribes, groups
  • Citizenship
  • Did not include good farmland, resources
  • Used homelands as excuse for depriving blacks of citizenship
  • Aliens
  • Men forced to migrate without families to work in mines, factories, farms
  • Homeland policy made millions resident aliens in own country
  • “Reservations” or “Bantustans”
  • Verwoerd established 9 African groups
    • Each was to become a nation within its own homeland
    • Africans had rights and freedoms
    • Outside the homelands, treated as aliens
  • Poor quality land with erosion
  • Completely incapable of supporting large populations
  • Covered 13% of South Africa’s land area for 75% of its population.
  • Economic development was outlawed.
  • The only work was in the white areas
  • Blacks were forced to live apart from their families to work in the white areas where they had to carry Passes at all times.
rural vs urban
Rural vs. Urban
  • Group Acts of 1950 & 1986
  • 1.5 Million Africans were forced from urban areas to rural reservations
  • 1961 – Pressure from UN caused South Africa to withdraw from the Commonwealth of Nations

Called "a black spot" because it is in a "white" area.

Eventually demolished and the inhabitants forced to move to identically numbered houses in "resettlement" villages in their designated "homelands.“

Millions of black South Africans were forcibly "resettled" in this way.

Umbulwana, Natal in 1982.

on your left side4
On your Left Side:
  • Using the previous pictures, imagine what a day living in the homelands would be like from getting up to going to bed.
  • Explain.
pass checks
Pass Checks
  • Checks were performed at random of any/all black Africans.
  • Those without Pass were arrested and fined. If they couldn’t pay the fine, they were sent to work camps.

Courtesy of www.unitedstreaming.com

the pass book
The Pass Book
  • Needed special permits to live outside of reservations, but not with family
  • Lived in Townships (the city’s perimeter)
  • Curfew regulations
  • Passbook raids
  • Failure to meet curfew or have passbook = subject to arrest
1953 public safety act and criminal law amendment act
1953- Public Safety Act and Criminal Law Amendment Act
  • Gave government power to declare states of emergency, increasing punishments for protesting against or supporting repeal of a law: fines, imprisonment, whippings
  • 1960-Government declared state of emergency when large group of blacks in Sharpeville refused to carry their passes
    • Emergency lasted for 156 days, 69 people dead and 187 people wounded

Photo and History: The History of Apartheid in South Africa

repression a general intro
Repression (a general intro):
  • 1950s- more than 500,000 pass-law arrests annually
  • 1950s- more than 600 inhabitants jailed as communists; nearly 350 people “banned”
  • Increasingly ruthless methods used starting in 1960s including routine torture, political assassination, house arrests, etc.
  • Around 10,000 people arrested in early 1960s for political offenses, etc.
on your left side5
On your Left Side:
  • Are there any rules we have today that you can relate to apartheid? What are they?
  • Why do you think these types of rules keep on being created in various countries?
bantu education act
Bantu Education Act
  • The 1953 Bantu Education Act was one of apartheid's most offensively racist laws. 
  • It brought African education under control of the government and extended apartheid to black schools. 
  • Previously, most African schools were run by missionaries with some state aid.
  • South Africans were to receive an education designed to provide them with skills to serve their own people in the homelands, to work as maids, or to work in labouring jobs under whites.
separate unequal education
Separate Unequal Education

Bantu Education Act of 1953

  • HF Verwoerd : “Natives (blacks) must be taught from an early age that equality

with Europeans (whites) is not for


  • Student/teacher ratio

46:1-1955, 58:1 -1967

  • Overcrowded classrooms,

poor facilities,

under-qualified teachers

apartheid education
Apartheid Education

Bantu Education Act (1953) gave the central government control over African education

"Native education should be controlled . . . in accord with the policy of the state . . . If the native in South Africa today in any kind of school in existence is being taught to expect that he will live his adult life under a policy of equal rights, he is making a big mistake . . . There is no place for him in the European community above the level of certain forms of labor." -Hendrik Verwoerd, Prime Minister

By Mzoli Mncanca

education under apartheid
Education Under Apartheid
  • Black people were not to receive an education that would lead them to aspire to positions they wouldn't be allowed to hold in society.
  • Instead they were to receive education designed to provide them with skills to serve their own people in the homelands or to work in labouring jobs under whites.
education under apartheid1
Education Under Apartheid
  • Bantu Education did enable more children in Soweto to attend school than the old missionary system of education, but there was a severe lack of facilities.
  • Nationally public to teacher ratios went up from 46:1 in 1955 to 58:1 in 1967.
  • Overcrowded classrooms were used on a rote basis.
  • There was also a lack of teachers, and many of those who did teach were under-qualified.
  • In 1961, only 10 percent of black teachers held a matriculation certificate [last year of high school].
effects from bantu education act
Effects from Bantu Education Act
  • The government controlled the non-whites' lives.
  • Blacks could not choose where to go to school, where to live, what job to have, and they couldn't get medical care (or if they did, it wasn't good health care).
  • When walking around town, blacks had to have passes to prove that they lived there and had a job.
with your partner on your left side
With your partner on your Left Side:
  • Compare and contrast the treatment of blacks in American before the abolishment of Jim Crow Laws to that of blacks in South Africa under Apartheid.
education and soweto
Education and Soweto
  • Because of the government's homelands policy, no new high schools were built in Soweto between 1962 and 1971 -- students were meant to move to their relevant homeland to attend the newly built schools there.
  • Then in 1972 the government gave in to pressure from business to improve the Bantu Education system to meet business's need for a better trained black workforce.
  • 40 new schools were built in Soweto.
  • Between 1972 and 1976 the number of pupils at secondary schools increased from 12,656 to 34,656.
  • One in five Soweto children were attending secondary school.

Young school children in a classroom in the squatter camp of Cross Roads, South Africa, in 1979. (UN Photo# 143373 by Peter Magubane)

conclusion key facts
Conclusion: Key Facts
  • The Bantu Education Act was one of apartheid's most offensively racist laws. 
  • During this time the government controlled the non-whites' lives.
  • In high school, blacks had to learn a language.
  • The riot in Soweto started off as a peaceful march, but then changed into a violent riot.
  • Students in the 1970's and 80's were referred to as the lost generation of South Africa because many blacks lost their education.
education and soweto1
Education and Soweto
  • So when the Department of Education issued its decree that Afrikaans was to become a language of instruction at school, it was into an already volatile situation.
  • Students objected to being taught in the language of the oppressor.
  • Many teachers themselves could not speak Afrikaans, but were now required to teach their subjects in it.
  • When the 1976 school year started, many teachers refused to teach in Afrikaans.
  • But generally students were disparaging of the attitude of their teachers and parents.
  • One student wrote to The World newspaper: "Our parents are prepared to suffer under the white man's rule. They have been living for years under these laws and they have become immune to them. But we strongly refuse to swallow an education that is designed to make us slaves in the country of our birth."
lost generation of south africa
Lost Generation of South Africa
  • Students of the 1970's and 80's are referred to as the lost generation of South Africa. 
  • They are often called this because the 1970s and 80s was the time period that a lot of black South Africans lost their education.
on your left side6
On your Left Side:
  • With your partner, compare and contrast issues and problems with the American education system to that of education under apartheid.

Most black men had to leave their homeland to find work in mines or factories.

Women raised whatever crops they could.

economics of apartheid
Cheap (black) African labor force for work in mines

Protection of skilled jobs for whites

Enormous income discrepancies

Economics of Apartheid


resistance and protests

Resistance and Protests

Apartheid is Challenged

on your left side7
On your Left Side:
  • If you were a black non-citizen in South Africa, how would you resist and protest against apartheid? Explain.
  • Or would you not resist and just accept and endure? Explain.

Protesting Apartheid

Change of Philosophy

  • Early 1900s, African National Congress formed in South Africa
  • ANC petitioned government, held peaceful protests against apartheid
  • 1940s, younger, radical members joined, including Nelson Mandela
  • 1952, Mandela organized campaign urging blacks in South Africa to break apartheid laws
  • 1960, changed from peaceful philosophy after police killed demonstrators in Sharpeville

Political Challenges

  • 1950s–1960s, many former European colonies ruled by dictators
  • Some nations fell into civil war
  • 1990s brought renewed hope with the return of democracy; end of the apartheid system in South Africa

The Sharpeville Massacre was a turning point in anti-apartheid movement. http://www.watchknowlearn.org/Video.aspx?VideoID=32205&CategoryID=835


early resistance 1912 1948
Early resistance: 1912-1948
  • 1912 African National Congress founded (original name: South African Native National Congress)
  • Legal protests led by African elites

Delegation from the South African Native National Congress that went to England in 1914 to convey the objections of the African people to the 1913 Land Act

nelson mandela ctivism
Nelson Mandelactivism
  • Joined African National Congress in 1944
  • Formed Youth League with Oliver Tambo
    • Secretary of ANCYL in 1947
  • National Party won election of 1948
    • New ANC president approved by ANCYL
  • President of ANCYL in 1951
  • Banned from ANC in 1952
    • Prohibited from attending meetings or holding an office
    • Confined to Johannesburg area
  • ANC operated underground
the treason trial
The Treason Trial
  • 156 nationalists arrested December 5th, 1956
    • Included Mandela and Albert Luthuli, President of ANC
    • Leaders of Congress Alliance
      • Combination of five major anti-apartheid organizations
  • Charged with high treason
    • Punishable by death
  • Acquitted in March of 1961
human rights nelson mandela
Human Rights – Nelson Mandela
  • Protest was outlawed. Anyone caught organising a demonstration, reading banned newspapers or speaking against the Apartheid system was in danger of being detained without trial, tortured, imprisoned, even sometimes murdered.
  • However, Mandela’s group, the African National Congress committed itself to using non-violent means to protest against this system
  • That is, until the Sharpeville Massacre in 1960.
the pan africanist congress
The Pan Africanist Congress
  • Formed by more radical members of ANC
    • Rivalry between ANC and PAC
  • 69 demonstrators killed at Sharpeville on March 21, 1960
  • Both groups formed military wings in 1961
  • Umkhonto we Sizwe (“Spear of the Nation”)
    • Mandela appointed first commander of MK
  • PAC’s Poqo and MK prepare sabotage
travel and arrest
Travel and Arrest
  • Mandela left country in secret in 1962
  • Attended Conference of Pan-African Freedom Movement of East and Central Africa
    • Conference of African nationalist leaders in Addis Ababa
    • Provided with Ethiopian passport by Haile Selassie
  • Traveled to Algeria for military training
    • Guerilla warfare
  • Next to London to visit Tambo
    • Arrested upon return
the rivonia trial
The Rivonia Trial
  • Charged for leaving country
    • Sentenced to five years in prison
  • MK HQ at Lilieslief raided on

July 11th, 1963

    • Arrested leaders charged with 221 counts of sabotage
  • Mandela delivered four hour statement
    • “I am Prepared to Die”
  • Sentenced to life imprisonment plus five years
on your left side what does mandela mean by this speech
On your Left Side: What does Mandela mean by this speech?

“ During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to

this struggle of the African people. I have fought

against white domination, and I have fought

against black domination. I have cherished the

ideal of a democratic and free society in which all

persons live together in harmony and with equal

opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for

and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which

I am prepared to die.”

mk attacks
MK attacks
  • 1960s MK relatively quiet
    • Problems: no internal support structure
  • Dramatic increase in actions in late ’70s and ’80s
    • Reasons: new regional bases, new internal support structures
  • Main repertoires: from sabotage to bombings
    • 190 acts of sabotage between October 1961 and July 1963.
    • 1976-1982: 150 attacks
    • 1980s- 100s of bombings
      • 1983- MK bombs air force headquarters.
      • 19 people killed and more than 200 injured.
mk targets
MK Targets:
  • “"(e) Selection of targets to be tackled in initial phase of guerrilla operations with a view to causing maximum damage to the enemy as well as preventing quick deployment of reinforcements. In its study the Committee should bear in mind the following main targets:
    • Strategic road, railways and other communications.
    • power stations
    • police stations, camps and military forces
    • irredeemable Government stooges."


Mandela went on the run after the ANC was banned. He was arrested in 1962, after secretly returning to South Africa, and was imprisoned for five years for organizing strikes.
  • In 1963, Mandela was linked to a sabotage campaign in Rivonia near Johannesburg. He was sentenced for life.
  • 1973, Mandela was offered a shorter sentence if he would support the bantustan program – he refused!
  • In 1974, South Africa was banned from the United Nations General Assembly.
nelson mandela
Nelson Mandela
  • Nelson Mandela peacefully fought to end apartheid. He served 27 years in prison for such “treason.”
  • Thousands of other South African non-whites were imprisoned and executed for their resistance against apartheid.
on your left side what does mandela mean
On your Left Side: What does Mandela mean?

“I was made by the law, a criminal, not because of what I had done, but because of what I stood for, because of what I thought, because of my conscious. Can it be any wonder to anybody that such conditions make a man an outlaw of society?” Nelson Mandela

nelson mandela in prison
Nelson Mandela in Prison
  • Would you be willing to spend 27 years in jail for a cause?
  • Why or why not?

Nelson Mandela spent 27 years in solitary confinement in this cell.

human rights nelson mandela1
Human Rights – Nelson Mandela
  • “During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to the struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.”
  • Nelson Mandela’s speech from the dock, Pretoria Courthouse, 1964

The shanty towns became centers for black groups who resisted the white government.

Thousands resisted apartheid by refusing to work, refusing to buy white products, going into “white only” areas, and marching in nonviolent demonstrations.

the protest of march 21 1960 sharpeville
The Protest of March 21,1960: Sharpeville
  • Black Protestors
  • Protested against pass laws
  • Wanted possession of passbooks unrequired
  • Passbooks are booklets that contain your ID 
  • Were discriminated by race
  • Treated like second class citizens
1960 sharpeville massacre
1960: Sharpeville Massacre 
  • March 21 -- At least 180 black Africans were injured and 69 killed when South African police opened fire on approximately 300 demonstrators, who were protesting against apartheid pass laws, at the township of Sharpeville in the Transvaal.
  • The event came to be known as the Sharpeville Massacre. In response to Sharpeville, the government outlawed the African National Congress (ANC). 
march 21 1960 sharpeville massacre
March 21,1960: Sharpeville Massacre

A large crowd of Black South Africans assembled in front of the

Sharpeville police station to protest the pass laws imposed by


The Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC), led by Robert Sobukwe, together

with Nelson Mandela's African National Congress (ANC), organized

the protest for the nation's blacks to join together to demonstrate

peacefully against apartheid.

Rarely in South Africa before 1960 had so many black people

demonstrated their defiance of the laws in any way. The police were

highly apprehensive, not knowing what to expect. Suddenly, tensions

were released: the crowd pelted the policemen with stones, and the

edgy policemen retaliated with gunfire.

In the end, sixty-nine protesters were killed and one hundred and eighty

were wounded (some shot while trying to flee)

1960 sharpeville massacre1
1960 Sharpeville Massacre
  • In 1960, during a peaceful protest in the city of Sharpeville, 69 people were killed
  • This massacre ignited additional demonstrations and protests against the unfair treatment of non-whites
black vs white


Did not want pass laws

 Threw stones

Mostly Black People


Police controlled situation 

Did not think blacks deserved same rights as whites

 Shot at blacks

White Government

Black vs. White
  • Declared state of emergency
  • Detained 18,000 people
  • Changed from passive resistance to armed
  • More security for enforcing racist laws
  • Sharpeville was a turning point in South Africa 

After the Sharpeville Massacre, the government banned (exile) all black African political organization, including the ANC and the PAC.

reaction to the sharpeville massacre
Reaction to the Sharpeville Massacre
  • Countries gave South Africa sympathy
  • UN condemned the government
  • Called for Resolution 134
  • Resolution is a plan to make both government and the citizens happy
  • Stated start of racial harmony throughout South Africa 
  • The Sharpeville Massacre was the start of a new beginning for South Africa, although it came with the loss of many innocent people.
  • The bravery displayed by the blacks is outstanding.
  • The protests, the riots, the strikes all led up to the racial harmony throughout South Africa.
  • With the help of the UN, other countries, and brave government officials, the Sharpeville Massacre was the start of a new chapter in South Africa.   
cause of the riot in soweto in 1976
Cause of the Riot in Soweto in 1976
  • When black students went to high school, they had to learn a language.
  • Most students wanted to learn English because it was a general language that people spoke.
  • However, the government forced the students to learn Afrikaans, the language of Apartheid.
  • The blacks were angry, so they boycotted the classes and went to protest in Soweto.
bantu education
Bantu Education

“There is no place for [the Bantu] in the European community above the level of certain forms of labour ... What is the use of teaching the Bantu child mathematics when it cannot use it in practice? That is quite absurd. Education must train people in accordance with their opportunities in life, according to the sphere in which they live.”

- Henrik Verwoerd, Minister of Education, 1958

"We shall reject the whole system of Bantu Education whose aim is to reduce us, mentally and physically, into 'hewers of wood and drawers of water'."Soweto Students Representative Council, 1976

apartheid in south africa
Apartheid in South Africa
  • Soweto Riots- 1976
    • Township near Johannesberg with over 1 million blacks
    • Centered around the teaching of Afrikaans
    • Started with class boycotts, led to largest riots in South African history
the riot in soweto
The riot in Soweto
  • The march in Soweto spread to other towns in South Africa. 
  • The march in Soweto was meant to be peaceful and nonviolent.
  • However, it wasn't taken as a march to make a point nonviolently. 
  • Many people were killed, including thirteen year old children. 
the soweto uprising
The Soweto Uprising
  • Young people had been forced to learn Afrikaans in school, the language of the Dutch settlers.
  • They were not allowed to speak or learn in their own language.
  • June 16, 1976, school-children protesting the right to be taught in their own language were shot by police. 69 school-kids died. The day is now commemorated in South Africa as Youth Day.
  • People around the world were outraged. But it was to be almost 20 years until the Apartheid system collapsed.
  • At the time, Nelson Mandela was serving his time in prison for what the government called ‘terrorist’ activities.
1976 soweto
1976: Soweto

When high-school students in Soweto

started protesting for better education

on June 16, 1976,police responded

with teargas and live bullets. In the

aftermath, the plan for schooling in

Afrikaans was dropped and the UN

banned sales of weapons to South

Africa in 1977.

soweto student uprising
Soweto Student Uprising
  • "It was a picture that got the world‘s attention: A frozen moment in time that showed 13-year-old Hector Peterson dying after being struck down by a policeman's bullet. At his side was his 17-year-old sister. ” (source)
student uprising 1976
Student Uprising: 1976
  • Black students were forced to learn in Afrikaans.
  • Protests against Afrikaans started.
  • More than 500 black students killed by white policemen.
  • More than a thousand men, women and children wounded.

By Mzoli Mncanca

1976 soweto riots
1976: Soweto Riots
  • On June 16 Between 15,000 and 20,000 high-school students in Soweto marched in protest, calling for better education for blacks.
  • Police responded by releasing attack dogs and firing teargas and live bullets into the crowd.
  • Students threw rocks and started setting fires to symbols of apartheid, such as government buildings and beer halls.
  • Army helicopters and Anti-Urban Terrorism units arrived.
  • The battle between students and police continued into the night.
  • Some estimated the death toll at 200.
  • Many more were injured.
  • The rioting spread to other towns and the government closed the schools
effects of soweto
Effects of Soweto
  • June 1976 – Soweto uprisings ignited new wave of activism – call to make South Africa ‘ungovernable’
    • International solidarity
    • Divestment and Sanctions
    • Free Mandela Campaign
on your left side8
On your Left Side:
  • If you were a black student in South Africa, would you have taken part in either of the protests?
  • Why or why not?
  • If you were alive and a high school or college student in America and saw the reports of the two protests on the news, what would you think and why?
organizing from within black consciousness movement
Emerges from black-only universities

Establishment of South African Students Union (SASO)

Influenced by black power in the U.S., black theology

Black African empowerment through internal strength

Self-reliant struggle: black Africans must lead their own emancipation movement

Means: community re-organization, self-reliance, student activism

Organizing From Within:Black Consciousness Movement

“The most potent weapon in the hands of the oppressor is the mind of the oppressed.”

- Steve Biko, a leader of the Black Consciousness Movement


His activities as a leader

Biko`s leadership abilities were perceptible from his

involvement with different black activist groups:

  • the Student`s Representative Council
  • National Union of South African
  • Students
  • University Christian Movement
  • South African Students Organisation
  • Black Community Programs
  • The Black Consciousness Movement

Biko was a leader in all of these groups.


Biko`s ambitions and attitudes

  • Steve Biko is remembered today for the
  • hope and inspiration he gave to all
  • of South Africa
  • One of Biko‘s ambitions was “to have a
  • new attitude towards and a new way of life that promoted black pride“
  • He believed that “the black man`s main
  • problem was his attitude of inferiority
  • and he believed that if black men thought
  • more of themselves, white men would
  • have a harder punishing the blacks under the rule of Apartheid

Another belief was if black men united the battle of

  • oppression would be an easier battle
  • Biko said:
  • “Black Consciousness is an attitude of mind, a way of life“
black consciousness
Black Consciousness
  • In the context of the struggle against apartheid, Biko argued that the first step towards liberation was to reshape the way in which black Africans understood their own situation
black consciousness1
Black Consciousness

“Black Consciousness is an attitude of mind and a way of life, the most positive call to emanate from the black world for a long time. Its essence is the realisszation by the black man of the need to rally together with his brothers around the cause of their oppression -- the blackness of their skin -- and to operate as agroup to rid themselves of the shackles that bind them to perpetual servitude.”

black consciousness2
Black Consciousness
  • Blacks must reclaim their identity and redefine it on their own terms, rather than in those set by the white oppressors.
  • “The philosophy of Black Consciousness therefore expresses group pride and the determination of the black to rise and attain the envisaged self. Freedom is the ability to define oneself with one’s possibilities held back not by the power of other people over one but only by one’s relationship to God and to natural surroundings.”
black consciousness3
Black Consciousness
  • How do we effect that change? Education
  • Biko draws attention to the corrupting effects of education when it is in the hands of, and done for the benefit of, the oppressor.
  • White educators try to impart “civilization” and “culture” and in doing so are -- explicitly or not -- denigrating native black culture
  • In the process, traditional African mores and beliefs are ripped apart and discarded
  • Biko argues that blacks need to resist the indoctrination and rediscover their own history
black consciousness4
Black Consciousness
  • Note that in celebrating black consciousness and black identity, Biko is careful to point out that this itself is not just another form of racism

“Racism does not only imply exclusion of one race by another -- it always presupposes that the exclusion is for the purposes of subjugation. Blacks have had enough experience as objects of racism not to wish to turn the table”

biko s silence
Jailed several times for his strong protests

Against government 

Kept in prison for years

Detention cells 

Chained by his hands and feet, and wrapped in urine soaked sheets

Jail officials

Police officers 

Beaten to death by police 

Biko's Silence
steve biko
Steve Biko
  • He was “banned” by the government in 1973, which meant he was not permitted to travel across the country.
  • He was arrested on 21 August 1977 and, while in police custody in Port Elizabeth, sustained a massive head injury.
  • Police reports indicated he was behaving erratically and uncooperative.
  • Left lying naked and shackled to a metal grille in cell.

Biko‘s Murder

  • A banning order was set, so leaving King William`s
  • Town would be illegal
  • While traveling to Cape Town, he was stopped by white
  • police officers
  • The police took him in custody
  • In prison Biko was beaten with a hose, and then pushed
  • into a wall
  • The police officers began the beating during the interrogation
  • because “he tried to sit down while being questioned“
  • Biko`s head was pushed into the wall so severely that they
  • shifted the inside of his brains
  • He was found six days after the killing, naked, lying dead
  • in his jail cell
steve biko1
Steve Biko
  • Three doctors on duty disregarded the injury.
  • On September 11, another police doctor recommended medical attention, but instead he was driven 600 miles to Pretoria (about 12 hours), a trip which he made lying naked in the back of a Land Rover.
steve biko2
Steve Biko
  • After arriving at the Pretoria Central Prison he was left naked on a floor and unattended, awaiting transfer to the hospital.
  • A few hours later, on 12 September, alone and still naked, lying on the floor of a cell in the Pretoria Central Prison, Biko died from brain damage.
biko s murder
Biko’s Murder
  • At first when questioned about this murder the police
  • officers told the public: “there was no beating or torture
  • connected to his death“
  • Aother statement by the police was: “ Biko got a head
  • injury when we had to restrain him after he went berserk
  • to arrest the police officers the comission required a
  • confession of this brutal crime, but they had to wait long
  • only recently did the police confess the truth but full reponsibility was not taken
  • As a result of Biko`s death in 1977, all Black Consciousness Organizations were banned
steve biko3
Steve Biko

A young Black leader

Grave in King Williams Town, South Africa.

Died in police detention in 1977. During the inquest into his death, strong evidence was presented that he suffered violent and inhumane treatment during his detention.


His honourable funeral

  • Thousands of Africans showed up at Biko´s funeral along with
  • representatives from thirteen Western States to share
  • in the mourning of such a nobel leader´s death
  • People say that he was a husband, a friend and a leader
  • His wife Wendy once said:
  • “we are honored to have been
  • among the friends of a man born
  • with unusual leadership qualities
  • and an unrelenting dedication to
  • the liberation of his people.“
steve biko4
Steve Biko
  • In 1985, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (created after the fall of apartheid) found that:

"The Commission finds that the death in detention of Mr Stephen Bantu Biko on 12 September 1977 was a gross human rights violation. Magistrate Marthinus Prins found that the members of the SAP were not implicated in his death. The magistrate's finding contributed to the creation of a culture of impunity in the SAP. Despite the inquest finding no person responsible for his death, the Commission finds that, in view of the fact that Biko died in the custody of law enforcement officials, the probabilities are that he died as a result of injuries sustained during his detention."

robben island
Robben Island
  • prisoners crushing rocks at Robben Island
united democratic front
United Democratic Front

This organization helped get the word out to the world about apartheid.

the struggle against apartheid
The struggle against apartheid
  • In the 1980s, the United Democratic Front was a a multi-racial coalition of community-based groups, trade unions, church groups, students, that launched a grassroots struggle against apartheid.
  • In 1985, the Congress of South African Trade Unions was formed (COSATU).
the united democratic front udf
The United Democratic Front (UDF)
  • est. 1983, ANC-supported
  • Primary goal: to coordinate activities of anti-apartheid orgs, and to resist state’s recent constitutional reforms
  • Organized as a federation of regionally based fronts
    • Umbrella federation for more than 600 local orgs
  • Prominent church leaders, civic leaders, former ANC reps, students
  • (mostly) Espoused nonviolence




Protesting Apartheid

  • Meeting Violence with Violence
  • Mandela, other ANC leaders decided to meet violence with violence
  • Government banned ANC, jailed Mandela
  • 1976, major student protest movement in township of Soweto
  • Soweto Uprising
  • Soweto Uprising set off by decree for black schools to teach Afrikaans—language of white South Africans
  • Police killed protesting student; peaceful march turned into revolt
  • Trade Sanctions
  • Police crushed uprising, but over 600 killed, 4,000 wounded
  • ANC fought to end apartheid; violence erupted in many black townships
  • International community imposed trade sanctions on South Africa

The government implemented a series of reforms that allowed black labor unions to organize and permitted some political activity by the opposition.The 1984 constitution opened parliament membership to Asians and Coloreds, but it continued to exclude black Africans, who made up 75% of the population. Many countries, including the United States, imposed economic sanctions of South Africa. More urban revolts erupted and, as outside pressure on south Africa intensified, the government’s apartheid policies began to unravel.

Mid 1970’s – Mid 1980’s

apartheid in south africa1
Apartheid in South Africa
  • International Response
    • Divestment- Cease business relationships with companies that do business in South Africa
    • Sanctions (1985)- United States imposed limited sanctions on the South Africans; many other European nations followed
on your left side with your partner
On your Left Side with your partner:
  • What does the cartoonist mean or is trying to prove with each political cartoon?
  • How do you know?
  • What would be a good sarcastic caption for each political cartoon?
  • Explain
south africa7
South Africa
  • During the 1980s the charismatic Anglican bishop, Desmond Tutu, rallied western support with a call for boycott of South Africa, primarily through economic sanctions.
  • In 1984 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of "the courage and heroism shown by black South Africans in their use of peaceful methods in the struggle against apartheid".

Desmond Tutu

truth and reconciliation commission
Truth and Reconciliation Commission
  •  The commissions purpose was to investigate crimes that happened during apartheid.
  • The commission let victims and perpetrators of violence be heard and forgiven. 
truth and reconciliation commission cont
Truth and Reconciliation Commission Cont. 
  • The idea behind the commission was that if perpetrators spoke up they would be given amnesty. 
  • Amnesty makes a person innocent and forgivin for their crimes.
  • People from all different groups could speak out. 
  • Tutu was the leading force behind the commission.
1985 demonstration
1985 Demonstration
  • In 1985 an International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination was organized.
  • The demonstration was held at Langa Township in Uitenhage.
  • The day commemorates the anniversary of the March 21, 1960 massacre.
1985 demonstration1
1985 Demonstration
  • The message was simple:

“Freedom in Our Lifetime!”

on your left side with your partner1
On your Left side with your partner:
  • Come up with a slogan and a symbol that are against apartheid.
momentous meetings
Momentous Meetings
  • In May 1988, the United Nations called for Mandela’s release without conditions.
  • In July 1989, President Botha met with Mandela.
  • Both men pledged a “support for peaceful developments.”
  • Both resigned due to health reasons and was succeeded as president by F.W. de Klerk.
  • Determined to break the “cycle of violence,” de Klerk ordered the release of eight political prisoners.
south africa8
South Africa
  • In 1989 Frederick W. de Klerk took over as President from P.W. Botha, who had suffered a stroke.
  • Much more liberal than Botha, de Klerk soon openly admitted the failure of apartheid policies.
  • Important reason for collapse of old regime was effects of many years of economic and trade embargo.
  • Sanctions enacted by many nations led to a desolate state for the South African economy.

FW de Klerk


De Klerk and Mandela met in December.

Mandela declared de Klerk to be “the most honest and serious white leader” he had ever met.

On February 2, 1990, de Klerk announced the end of the bans on the ANC, the PAC, and over 30 other anti-apartheid organizations


Democracy in South Africa

  • 1990, President F.W. de Klerk legalized ANC, began negotiations to enact new constitution, end apartheid
    • Released Mandela from prison
    • Lifted long-standing ban on African National Congress
  • De Klerk also abolished homelands, held South Africa’s first democratic elections
    • ANC swept elections
    • Mandela became first black president of a democratic South Africa
free at last
Free At Last!

On February 11, 1990, after 27 years in

prison, Nelson Mandela was released.

“Today the majority of South Africans, black

and white, recognize that apartheid has no

future.” – Nelson Mandela

nobel peace prize
Nobel Peace Prize
  • Mandela and De Klerk both won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 for their efforts to end Apartheid.
  • Accepting the award on December 10, 1993, Mandela declared:

“We live in the hope that as she battles to remake herself, South Africa will be like a microcosm of the new world that is striving to be born.”

on your left side9
On your Left Side:
  • If we were to create a Wanted Poster for Nelson Mandela, what would be on his list of crimes?
  • If we were to create a Hero Poster for Nelson Mandela, what would be on his list of achievements?
  • Reservations abolished and territories reabsorbed into the nation of South Africa
  • Apartheid caused major economic hardships on South Africa
    • International sanctions
    • Decreased labor force
    • Cut investments from countries like U.S.A.
  • First multiracial election
  • Nelson Mandela elected president of South Africa (1994 – 1999)
a new government
A New Government

Nelson Mandela casts the first vote for the new government of South Africa.

On April 27, 1994, Nelson Mandela was elected

the first black president if the first free election.

“We are moving from an era of resistance, division,

oppression, turmoil, and conflict and starting a

New era of hope, reconciliation, and nation-building. I

sincerely hope that the mere casting of a vote . . . will give

hope to all South Africans.”- Nelson Mandela

on your left side10
On your Left Side:
  • What does the cartoonist mean with the following political cartoon?
  • What would be a good overall sarcastic caption to use to emphasize this message?
  • Inaugurated May 10th, 1994
  • First black president of South Africa
  • Aimed to improve social and economic conditions for black majority
    • Large scale redistribution of wealth
  • Truth and Reconciliation Commission
    • Human rights violations from old regime
    • Improved living standards of black population
      • Better housing and education
  • Violence control
    • Afrikaner Resistance Movement
      • Extremists opposing new government using terrorism
  • Legislation to protect workers
    • Workplace safety, overtime pay, minimum wage
  • Decided not to run for reelection in 1997
  • Supported Thabo Mbeki
    • Inaugurated June 16, 1999
  • Retired from public life in 2004
  • Committed to fight against HIV/AIDS epidemic
    • Son Makgatho Mandela died of AIDS on January 6th, 2005
on your left side what is the main message of this speech
On your Left Side: What is the main message of this speech?

“ We have at last achieved our

political emancipation. We pledge

ourselves to liberate all our people

from the continuing bondage of

poverty, deprivation, suffering,

gender, and other discrimination

. . . Never, never, and never again

shall it be that this beautiful land

will again experience the

oppression of one by another. . .

Let freedom reign.”

life after democracy
Life after Democracy

1994 – 1997 Nelson Mandela became the first Black President, FW De Klerk the first Deputy President and Thabo Mbeki the second.

1997 – 2006 then Thabo Mbeki become the second Black President and Jacob Zuma was a Deputy President.

on your left side with your partner2
On your Left Side with your partner:
  • What is the message of each political cartoon?
  • How can you tell?
  • What would be a good sarcastic caption for each?

2009 Jacob Zuma become the fourth Democratic President up until today after the Acting President Ralima Motlhale.

political south africa
Political South Africa
  • The political structure of our nation has been shaped directly by the influences of the Apartheid era.
  • Political parties, politicians and our very constitution have been shaped by the struggle.
  • Consequently policies and legislation today attempt to redress the imbalance that was a characteristic of the Apartheid era

Politics and its link with history


politics 1 political parties
Politics 1: Political Parties

African National Congress:

A popular party partly because it took a pivotal role in the overthrow of Apartheid

New National Party:

Struggles with its past as the party that implemented Apartheid. Not popular but has supporters amongst some Coloured and Whites

Democratic Alliance:

The remnants of the liberal parties of the Apartheid era (PFP, DP etc). Continues to safeguard principles of democracy but looks to protect economic privilege

Parties and their link with history


politics 1 political parties1
Politics 1: Political Parties

Inkatha Freedom Party

A tribal based party (Zulu) was formed out of the divisions sponsored by the policy of Separate Development

Freedom Front

Last stand of the Afrikaaner movements. Tends to have realistic outlook but wants to protect Afrikaaner values

Pan African Congress:

Important player in struggle but Africanist stance limits appeal to other racial groups. Small but influential group

Parties and their link with history


politics 2 our politicians
Politics 2: Our Politicians

Thabo Mbeki’s father, Goven, was head of the ANC during the exile years

Nelson Mandela played a critical role in the struggle and was imprisoned on Robben Island


People and their link with history

Former President


politics 3 the constitution
Politics 3: The Constitution
  • The concerns raised by the injustices of Apartheid have resulted in the formularization of our democratic constitution. This document is the envy of numerous nations who do not have the freedoms we have.
  • Your right to freedom in terms of:
    • Race
    • Sex
    • Religion
    • Sexual Orientation
    • Gender

… are all protected in terms of the South African Constitution



economic south africa
Economic South Africa

The economic structure of our nation has also been shaped directly by the influences of the Apartheid era. Political power might now rest with the black majority but economic power still rests with the white classes who hold important positions within nearly all sectors of the economy. Affirmative action is one such strategy designed to try and change this.


economics 1 corporate power
Economics 1: Corporate Power

Corporate power rests with the historically advantaged classes and therefore is still dominated by English and Afrikaans speaking families. Foreign investors too influence the goings on in the corporate world. Foreign based companies such as Anglo America, Anglo Gold etc. are big economic players


economics 2 social classes
Economics 2: Social Classes

The economic divisions are obvious to us today. Schooling is just one area where most blacks and many whites still experience the disadvantages or benefits derived from their economic class



challenges facing sa today
Challenges facing SA today
  • High rate of unemployment
  • Inequality with a racial overlay
  • Lastly, poverty especially to those who were disadvantaged before democracy.

In schools :

  • Endemic to rural areas including overcrowding, poor school infrastructure (including collapsing ceilings and broken windows), high student to teacher ratio, long walk to get to school and lastly, the lack of teaching and learning resources.
on your left side11
On your Left Side:
  • What challenges or problems facing South Africa today is the political cartoon addressing?
  • Explain.
building the new south africa
Building the New South Africa
  • After the 1994 elections, South Africa faced the challenge of integrating the former White, Colored, Indian, and African departments of government.
  • Provinces that included former homelands had the added burden of integrating those departments as well.
  • The Province of the Eastern Cape, with two homelands, integrated 6 separate departments into one unified Department of Education
status of education in sa
Status of Education in SA

The most recent government report:

# of overcrowded schools has fallen from 51% (1999) to 42% (2006)

School electrification has risen from 11,174 (1996) to 20,713 (2006)

Schools without water has dropped from 8,823 (1996) to 3,152 (2006)

Schools without on-site toilets dropped from 3,265 (1996) to 1,532 (2006)

status of education in sa1
Status of Education in SA

Current areas of debate

Mother-tongue instruction; when is English introduced?

Outcomes Based Education; how to be successful when the tools needed are not available

No-fee Schools; ensuring these schools are centers of excellence

Instituting Standards for School Principals; setting qualifications and course work

opening education to all
Opening Education to All
  • 1994 - universal access to single system of education
  • 1996 - Constitution extended compulsory education to grades 1 – 9 (ages 6 – 15)
  • 1999 Tirisanot Programme of Action focused on improving the quality of secondary schools
economic equity in education
Economic Equity in Education
  • Fee-free schools
    • Up to 40% of all schools in 2007
national nutrition program
National Nutrition Program
  • Feeds 1.6-million schoolchildren every day
  • Nearly 2000 school gardenswith federal, local and NGO support
ongoing education issues in south africa
Ongoing Education Issues in South Africa
  • Violences in schools is increasing, Special needs and problems resulting from the HIV/ AIDS pandemic, social problems such as substance abuse.
  • Non-governmental organisation are the main providers of children’ social welfare services and working along with the government.
about the poet

Tatamkhulu Afrika (1920–2002) was

born in Egypt to a Turkish mother and an

Arab father, but was orphaned as an

infant and adopted by white South

Africans. His poetry and writing

conveyed his opposition to




written in the FIRST PERSON about a

man’s journey to a district that

has changed in recent years. The area is

DISTRICT SIX which was an area ONLY

for WHITE people during apartheid.


The poem begins with the poet visiting

District Six after apartheid ended and

anybody, black or white is allowed to go

there. He describes how the area is

being redeveloped with

new houses and

fashionable restaurants.


HOWEVER, at the time the poem was

written many black people would not have

been able to afford to go there or were

not made to feel welcome. This makes

the poet ANGRYas he feels that it as if

apartheid is still in existence.

on your left s ide
On your Left Side:
  • Make notes about the poem left side of your Interactive Notes.
nothing s changed

The poet returns to the wasteland that was once his home, and

relives the anger he felt when the area was first destroyed.

Small round hard stones click

under my heels,

seeding grasses thrust

bearded seeds into trouser cuffs, cans,

trodden on, crunch

in tall, purple-flowering,

amiable weeds.

He describes the area as being neglected and desolate

Alliteration of the ‘c’ sound creates a harsh tone.


nothing s changed1


apartheid is

officially over

Afrika still

feels that there

are divides.

District Six.

No board says it is:

but my feet know,

and my hands,

and the skin about my bones,

and the soft labouring of my lungs,

and the hot, white, inwards turning

anger of my eyes.

Repetition of ‘and’ 4 times emphasises the poets risingANGER.

nothing s changed2

Here he describes a


fashionable restaurant.

‘Brash’ suggest

it is big and flashy.

Brash with glass,

Name flaring like a flag,

it squats

in the grass and weeds

Incipient Port Jackson trees:

New, up-market, haute cuisine,

guard at the gatepost,

whites only inn.


‘Squats’ is an unattractive verb. It suggests that it does not belong there.

Just beginning to develop.

Despite apartheid being abolished it is still a ‘whitesonly’ restaurant and even has a guard to ensure this.

nothing s changed3

No sign says it is:

but we know where we belong.

He is speaking


to the reader.

There is no official segregation but inequality still exists in South Africa.

nothing s changed4

I press my nose

To the clear panes, know,

before I see them, there will be

crushed ice white glass,

linen falls,

the single rose.

He is looking in at the exclusive ‘whites only’ restaurant.

Exquisite images emphasise the splendour of the ‘whites only inn’

Assonance to stress the character’s anger.

nothing s changed5

Here we have a

juxtaposition of the lives of white and black

people. White people dine in a beautiful

environment. Whilst IN CONTRAST black people

dine in a basic ‘working man’s café’.

Down the road,

working man’s café sells

bunny chows.

Take it with you, eat

it at a plastic table’s top,

wipe your fingers on your jeans,

spit a little on the floor:

it’s in the bone.

The café where black people dine.

‘Bunny chow’ is a South African colloquialism meaning low-quality fast food.

nothing s changed6

‘Boy’ in South Africa

is an insulting

name for a black


I back from the glass,

boy again,

Leaving small mean O

of small, mean mouth.

Hands burn

for a stone, a bomb,

to shiver down the glass.

Nothing’s changed.


‘Nothing’s Changed’ – The poem’s ending is the same as its title showing the cyclical nature of segregation. He feels it will continue despite the end of apartheid.

Metaphor showing that he is ANGRY and wants to take revenge!

Social injustice still remained. Largely confined to poorly-paid manual jobs, black people formed an economic underclass.

poetic techniques
  • CONTRAST– between the luxurious

setting of the smart restaurant and the

cheap café.

  • SYMBOLISM – District Six (the most

famous community from which black and mixed-

race citizens were evicted) represents


poetic techniques1

3. ALLITERATION - the harsh ‘c’

sound, e.g. ‘into trouser cuffs, cans’,

expresses the poet’s ANGER

4. ANGRYDICTION – expresses how

the poet is feeling e.g. ‘anger of my eyes’,

‘mean mouth’, ‘a bomb to shiver down the


poetic techniques2

5. ONOMATOPOEIA– e.g. ‘click’,

‘crunch’, ‘spit’. These words help us to

follow the man on his journey through the

district, literally and metaphorically.

  • The poem is written in 6 stanzas of 8

lines each. This regularity illustrates

that the poet is in control of his

emotions and feelings, rather than flying

into a rage.

  • Each stanza has sentences of varying

length, some with only 2 words:

E.g. ‘District Six.’

  • The short sentences convey his

bitterness and anger at the unjust


main themes in the poem
  • Cultural Identity
  • ANGER at discrimination and racial prejudice.
  • Frustration caused by unfairness in society.
  • Alienation and feeling excluded, ‘….we know where we belong.’