On your Left Side: • Write down what you already know about South Africa and/or apartheid. • Where do you know this information from? • Book you read • Movie you saw • TV program you saw
On your Left Side: • Diagram or draw out a timeline and write down the main events from the next couple of slides.
South Africa • In the 18th century Dutch settlers, who called themselves Boers, began expanding toward the north and east. • Believed they were predestined by God to claim this land. • Gradually began pushing onto the interior.
Early HistoryA Time Line • 1806 – British seize Cape of Good Hope • 1867 – Discovery of Gold • 1886 – Discovery of Diamonds • 1889 – 1902 – The Boer War (British and Dutch settlers) • 1902 – The beginning of apartheid • 1990’s – The end of apartheid
South Africa • British gained possession of Cape Colony in 1815; abolished slavery in 1833. • Boers felt British policy destroyed their traditional social order, based on racial separation, • Also believed it would undermine white predominance, which they saw as God's own will. • British intrusion precipitated the “ Great Trek.” • Starting in 1835 10,000 Boers (voortrekkers) moved northeast into interior and ultimately established Orange Free State and Transvaal.
1835: The “Great Trek” Feeling the British policy destroyed their political and social order, based on racial separation and that white dominance was “God’s own will,”10,000 Boers, or Voortrekkers, left Cape Town to escape British rule on a 1,000 mile migration inland, known as the“Great Trek.”
South Africa • At time of white settlement of the Cape, Xhosa groups were living far inland. • Since around 1770, they had been confronted with the Trek Boers or Voortrekkers who approached from the west. • Both Boers and Xhosa were stock-farmers. The competition for grazing land led first to quarrels between the two groups, and eventually it came to a number of wars. • In the middle of the 19th century, all land formerly inhabited by Xhosa was in the hands of white settlers.
South Africa • Towards the end of 18th century, all over southern Africa small tribal groups were amalgamating into larger communities. • Not a peaceful process, but result of protracted wars. • Rise of Zulu Kingdom falls into this period. • Through incredible atrocities and cruelties Zulu warrior Shaka gained control over a number of Zulu clans. • Expanded his territory systematically as his warriors raided Zulu villages and burnt them down. • Women and children gored to death; young men called up and chiefs tortured and forced into allegiance.
South Africa • Voortrekkers failed to negotiate with Zulus secession of land for settling and grazing. • They had endured a number of catastrophic assaults. • Assembled at the Ncome River for a decisive battle on December 16, 1838. • 464 Boers under command of Andries Pretorius defeated 10,000 Zulu warriors. • Became known as the Battle of Blood River.
South Africa • Boers did not ascribe military victory to technically superior armaments; interpreted it instead as a sign from God. • Before battle, they prayed and made a vow that if God would grant them victory over Zulus, they would commemorate the event annually. • Afterward they believed even more strongly that white predominance over blacks is God's own will. Voortrekker Monument, outside Pretoria
South Africa • Port Natal (later re-named Durban) was a frequent port-of-call for sailors and merchants and in 1823 a settlement started to develop. • Zulus regarded Natal as their territory; tolerated white settlers, because port was useful as a trading post. • When Voortrekkers came to Natal in 1836 fierce battles with Zulus occurred. • Short-lived peace after Zulu defeat at Battle of Blood River in 1838. • Soon British and Voortrekkers battled for Natal. • Ultimately, the British prevailed and in 1844, Natal became a Crown Colony; the Voortrekkers retreated.
A Series of Boer Struggles 1838: Boers defeat the Zulu nation in the Battle of Blood River in their fight to obtain land the Zulu tribe was occupying. • : British take over Natal. 1852-1854: Boers travel further north and establish the Orange Free State and Transvaal as independent republics. 1870-1886: Diamonds deposits are discovered in Kimberley and gold deposits are discovered in Transvaal causing an influx of British immigrants and black Africans searching for work and fortune. 1880-1881: Anglo-Boer Wars
More struggles 1899: Boer War erupted as a result of Afrikaaners upset over Continual British migration inland to the mining regions. 1899-1902: British established Afrikaner civilian camps where epidemics broke out and killed 26,000 prisoners. 1902: Boers surrendered to British rule 1910: British award independence to South Africa. They believed only white to be capable of self-government. Blacks were barred from voting and Afrikaans was made the official language.
A Country Divided • White South Africans made up only 21.5% of the total population and of these, an English-speaking minority dominated government and business in the cities. • Most whites were Afrikaans-speaking Boers, mostly farmers and still bitter about the war • The majority black population, 67%, included many different groups of people including Zulu and Xhosa of the Transkei region. Other groups were much smaller.
By 1910, black Africans owned less than 10% of a country their ancestors completely controlled. • 1913, the South African Parliament passed a Native Land Act that limited the blacks’ ownership of land even more. • Apartheid placed restrictions on how people could live. For example, black South Africans were made to live in tiny clusters of homes called townships.
Other Ethnic Groups • Coloureds: 9% of the population. • Indian immigrants: 2.5% of the population. Both groups had varying rights in the Cape, but were not treated as equals by most whites
The Native Homeland Act separated different African tribes into segregated areas. This act set aside 7.3% of the country’s land Aside as reservations and banded black Africans from buying land outside these areas.
Road to Apartheid In 1912, the South African Native National Congress (later known as the ANC – 1923) was founded to unite black Africans and defend their interests. In 1913, the Afrikaaner Nationalist Party was established.
ANC • African National Congress (ANC) was created to aide in the civil rights movement.
Peaceful Protest • 1912, a young Indian Lawyer living in Cape Town named Mohandas K. Gandhi became outraged after being thrown off the train for sitting in a “white’s only” seat. • He organized a peaceful protest march, inspiring some black South Africans to form a civil rights organization.
Whites Asserting Control • In 1924, the Labour Party defeats the South African Party. • Led by James Hertzog, South Africa became more independent of British control and favored the interests of whites, especially Afrikaners. • Afrikaans is confirmed as an official language along with English.
South Africa: Divided by Race • Decolonization in South Africa was tainted by the clash between white and black citizens of the newly free country. • The government that declared freedom from Britain was controlled by the white minority, largely descended from the Dutch Boers. • These Afrikaners practiced the policy of apartheid (extreme racial segregation). • South Africa is one of the world’s richest sources of gold and diamonds. • Between the 60’s and 90’s, the white government of South Africa turned the country into the wealthiest, most modern, and most industrialized on the continent.
Apartheid Racial Separation • 1948, racial discrimination heightened when Afrikaner-dominated National Party began to run South African government • Instituted policy of apartheid, “apartness” in Afrikaner language • Apartheid policy divided into four racial groups: White, Black, Colored (mixed ancestry), Asian • Attempted to create greater separation between whites, nonwhites, impose harsh controls South Africa In the early 1900s South Africa was run by white Afrikaners—descendants of the original Dutch settlers. Even though South Africa had received independence from Great Britain in 1910, nonwhites in South Africa were not free under the Afrikaner government. Apartheid laws banned interracial marriages, and placed further restrictions on African ownership of land and businesses.
Apartheid • a method of “divide and rule” to counteract the so-called "black danger" Afrikaner rulers saw Africans as threatening to overrun or engulf them by their sheer numbers. • Brutal racism: imprisonment, police killings and murder
Apartheid “Apartheid” is a word meaning “Separateness” Black South Africans, who made up 75% of the population, and other non-white People lived under government institutionalized racial segregation from 1948 to 1994. Non-whites were stripped of citizenship and necessities such as medical care and education.
What is Apartheid? • Apartheid= separateness • A policy of racial discrimination • Began in 1948 by South Africa’s government • Black South Africans (more than 75% of pop.) were forced to live under strict segregation
HendrikVerwoerd Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958 until his assassination in 1966 “Architect of Apartheid”
On your Left Side: • Imagine you are one of the black non-citizens of South Africa. • How would you feel about what is happening in your country? Why? • What would you do about it? Why?
Citizenship Denied Laws Harsh on Blacks • Under apartheid, only white South Africans could vote, hold political office • Blacks made up nearly 75 percent of population, were denied South African citizenship • Restricted to certain occupations, very little pay • Apartheid laws especially harsh on blacks in South Africa • Required to carry passes, identity books • Also faced imprisonment if police found them in an area for more than 72 hours without pass Apartheid Laws
1948-Racism institutionalized -Marriage between blacks and whites prohibited -”white-only” jobs sanctioned 1950-Population Registration Act -Divided South Africans into white, black (Africans), and colored (mixed descent) -Based on appearance, social acceptance, and descent -Blacks-forced to carry “pass books” holding fingerprints, photograph, and information on access to non-black areas Looking into Apartheid… The History of Apartheid in South Africa
Apartheid- Marriages and business • Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act 55 of 1949, prohibiting marriages between white people and people of other races • Blacks were not allowed to run a business in the areas that were meant for white South Africans.
Africans had to be legally classified (Black, White, Colored, Indian) Africans were not allowed to have interracial marriages Africans had to carry registration cards with their race indicated Africans had to be separated publicly (restaurants, hospitals, beaches, theaters, pools, restrooms, etc) Africans also had separate educational systems (lower standards for blacks) Some Rules of Apartheid
Apartheid No Rights for Non-whites • No right to vote • No ownership of land • No right to move freely • No right to free speech • No right to protest the government
Apartheid separated the whites from the non-whites
What does Kaffir mean? • The word Kaffir is an ethnic slur that is mostly used in Jamaica and South Africa. • Referring to someone from Jamaica or South Africa as Kaffir would be the same as referring to an African-American person as the “N-word.” • This usage and “strength” of Kaffir is fading away.
A Journey of Inequality 1939-Representation of Voters Act weakened the political rights for Africans and allows them to vote only for white representatives. COUNTERPARTS: PEOPLE ON THE SAME LEVEL, DOING THE SAME WORK 1946-African mine workers are paid twelve times less than their white counterparts. Over 75,000 Africans go on strike in support of higher wages. Over 1000 workers are injured or killed before police violence forces them to end the strike 1948-The Afrikaner Nationalist Party gains control of the government and passed the first of 317 Apartheid laws, separating whites from blacks. APARTHEID: A POLICY OF SEPARATENESS 1951-The African National Congress (ANC), a political organization for Africans, encourages peaceful resistance to Apartheid Laws. The government reacts by arresting more people. AFRIKANER: A EUROPEAN DESCENDANT OF THE DUTCH IN SOUTH AFRICA 1950-1953-Multiple Apartheid laws are passed restricting the movement and rights of blacks and requiring pass books. From 1948-1973, over ten million Africans were arrested because their passes were not in order
Mine Workers in South Africa Working conditions were terrible in the mines, with miners earning only a few dollars a day and being forced to be separate from their families for months or years at a time.
Apartheid-Public facilities and jobs • Medical care and other public services and provided black people with service inferior to those of Whites • Practical separation of residential areas • Separation of public institutions e.g. schools and hospitals. • Separation of jobs, ”jobs for whites only” • Separate use of facilities like toilets, chairs, bus stops, stair-cases etc. • Black buses stopped at black bus stops and white buses at white ones. • Trains, hospitals and ambulances were segregated
On your Left Side: • Which of these laws makes you most angry? Why?
On your Left Side: • What is the main point the cartoonist is making about apartheid? • How can you tell?
1951 Bantu Authorities Act Created basis for ethnic government in African reserves or “homelands” Blacks had no rights in South Africa. Their rights were restricted to the so called “homelands”. The White Government had complete control over the homelands. By Mzoli Mncanca
Homelands • Townships • Apartheid placed limits on where blacks could live • Required to live in impoverished areas of cities called townships • Further Segregation • Restricted businesses allowed in townships, kept people poor • 1950s, created rural “homelands” for tribes, groups • Citizenship • Did not include good farmland, resources • Used homelands as excuse for depriving blacks of citizenship • Aliens • Men forced to migrate without families to work in mines, factories, farms • Homeland policy made millions resident aliens in own country
Homelands • “Reservations” or “Bantustans” • Verwoerd established 9 African groups • Each was to become a nation within its own homeland • Africans had rights and freedoms • Outside the homelands, treated as aliens • Poor quality land with erosion • Completely incapable of supporting large populations