Summarizing (Marzano, 2001, p. 29)
Summarizing From the research of (Anderson, V. & Hidi, 1987) and (Anderson, V. & Hidi, 1988/1989) three generalizations can be extracted
To be effective at summarizing students must: • Delete some information, substitute some information, and keep some information. (p.30) • To effectively delete, substitute, and keep information, students must analyze the information at a fairly deep level. (p.31) • Being aware of the explicit structure of information is an aid to summarizing information. (p.32) “In general, research has demonstrated that making students aware of the specific structure in information helps them summarize that information.” (Anderson, Armbruster, & Ostertag, 1987; Raphael & Kirschner, 1985)
Summarizing Strategies • Rule-Based • Summary Frames • Reciprocal Teaching
The “Rule-Based” Strategy • Developed by (Brown, Campione, &Day, 1981) • Steps • Delete trivial material that is unnecessary to understanding. • Delete redundant material. • Substitute superordinate terms for lists. • Select a topic sentence, or invent one if it is missing.
Summary Frames • Summary frames are a series of questions that the teacher provides to students. • Six types of summary frames. 1. Narrative Frame 2. Topic-Restriction-Illustration Frame 3. Definition Frame 4. Argumentation Frame 5. Problem/Solution Frame 6. Conversation Frame
Narrative Frame The narrative or story frame is commonly found in fiction and contains the following elements: • Characters 2. Setting 3. Initiating event 4. Internal response 5. Goal 6. Consequence 7. Resolution
Topic-Restriction-Illustration Frame T-R-I stands for topic, restriction, and illustration. This pattern is commonly found in expository material. The T-R-I- frame contains the following elements: Topic- General statement about the topic to be discussed. Restriction- Limits the information in some way. Illustartions- Exemplifies the topic or restriction.
Definition Frame The purpose of a definition frame is to describe a particular concept and identify subordinate concepts. Definition patterns contain the following elements: 1. Term - the subject to be defined 2. Set - the general category to which the term belongs 3. Gross characteristics - those characteristics that separate the term from other elements in the set 4. Minute differences - those different classes of objects that fall directly beneath the terms
Argumentation Frame Argumentation frames contain information designed to support a claim. They contain the following elements: 1. Evidence: Information that leads to a claim. 2. Claim: The assertion that something is true. The claim is a focal point of the argument. 3. Support: Examples of or explanations for the claim. 4. Qualifier: A restriction on the claim or evidence for the claim.
Problem/Solution Frame Problem/solution frames introduce a problem and then identify one or more solutions to the problem.
Conversation Frame A conversation is a verbal exchange between two or more people. Commonly, a conversation has the following components: 1. Greeting: Some acknowledgment that the parties have not seen each other for a while. 2. Inquiry: A question about some general or specific topic. 3. Discussion: An elaboration or analysis of the topic. Commonly included are: Assertions Requests Promises Demands Threats Congratulations 4. Conclusion The conversation ends in some way.
Reciprocal Teaching • Developed by (Brown & Palincsar, 1984,1985) • The strategy contains four components (p. 42): 1. Summarizing 2. Questioning 3. Clarifying 4. Predicting
Note Taking (Marzano, 2001, p. 43)
Note Taking • Note taking is related to summarizing • Students must synthesize information • Students that learn to take useful notes will be more successful
The Research Indicates… • Verbatim note taking is, perhaps, the least effective way to take notes. • Notes should be considered a work in progress. • Notes should be used as study guides for tests. • The more notes taken the better.
Classroom Practice in Note Taking • Teacher Prepared notes • Formal and Informal Outlines • Webbing • Combination Notes
Teacher Prepared Notes • Teacher gives the students copies of the notes they have made • Clear picture of what the students should learn • Provides a model for note taking
Outlines • Informal Outlines • Uses indentation to indicate major ideas • Details are listed under main ideas • Formal Outlines • Has headings • Key phrases • Follows a specific pattern
small Size indicates Importance bigger webbing Visual Lines indicate connections limited
Combination Notes Left Side Right Side Summary Of The Two Sides Put Together • Informal outline • Main Ideas • Details • Students stops periodically to synthesizes information Webbing or a variation Pictures Portrayed in a visual manner
Cues and Questions (Marzano, 2001, p. 111)
Cues & Questions • Cues= “hints” about what going to learn • Questions= analyze new information
Cues & Questions • 80 percent of what occurs in classrooms on a daily basis happens through cueing and questioning • (Davis, O.L, and Tinsley, 1967, Fillippone, 1998, as cited in Marzano, 2001, p.113). • Should focus on what is important not unusual • Unusual might stimulate interest • More detail definitely stimulates more interest • (Alexander and Judy, 1988, Alexander, Kulikowich, and Schulze, 1994, Risner, Nicholson, and Webb, 1994, as cited in Marzano, 2011, p.113). • Can come before a lesson to set a mindset • Can come after a lesson to review new information
Cues • Should get students thinking about what they already know about a subject. • Allows for new synapses to be created between old information and new information.
Things/People What action does this thing or person usually perform? How is this thing usually used? Does this thing have a particular emotional state? What is it? When this thing is used, does it present a particular danger to other things or to people? What is it? Actions What effect does this action have on the taste, feel, sound, or look of this thing? How is the value of a thing changed by this action? How does this action change the size or shape of a thing? How does this action change the state of a thing? Cueing Questions Marzano, 2001, p. 115
Events What people are usually involved in this event? During what season or time of year does this event usually take place? What does this event usually take place? What equipment is typically use in this event? How long does this event usually take? Staes (of Being) What is the basic process involved in reaching this state? What are the changes that occur when soemthing reachers this state? Cueing Questions Marzano, 2001, p. 115
Questions • Questions that make students analyze information are higher level questions • (Redfield and Rouseeau, 1981, as cited by Marzano, 2001, p.113) • Most teachers use lower order questioning • (Davis, O.L. and Tinsley, 1967, Fillippone, 1998, Guszak, 1967, Mueller, 1973, as cited by Marzano, 2001, p. 113)
Analyzing Errors What are the errors in reasoning in this information? How is this information misleading? How could it be corrected or improved? Constructing Support What is an argument that would support the following claim? What are some of the limitations of this argument or the assumptions under-lying it? Higher Level Questions Marzano, 2001, p. 116
Higher Level Questions • Analyzing Perspectives • Why would someone consider this to be good (or bad or neutral)? • What is the reasoning behind his or her perspective? • What is an alternative perspective, and what is the reasoning behind it? Marzano, 2001, p. 116
Cues & Questions • After cueing or questioning allow for wait time • A few second pause that lets students collect their thoughts • Wait time is associated with students interacting with one-another providing a better learning environment • (Swift and Gooding, 1983, Folwer, 1975, Honea, 1982, as cited by Marzano, 2011, p. 114)
Advanced Organizers (Marzano, 2001, p. 117)
Produce higher level of thinking 1968 Made popular David Ausubel Advanced Organizers psychologist Different types: Organize information Focus on important information Skimming Graphic Expository Narrative Present in story format Visual representation Describe new info Brief look
Advanced organizers were popularized by psychologist David Ausubel in 1968 (Marzano, 2001, p. 117) Ausubel indicates that advanced organizers are, “designed to bridge the gap between what that learner already knows and what he needs to know before he can successfully learn the task at hand” (Marzano, 2001, para. 2).
Focus on what information is significant • Produce a higher and deeper level of • learning • Organize information • Provide a knowledge base prior to • exposure • Types of advanced organizers
Four Types of Advanced Organizers • Expository • Narrative • Skimming • Graphic
Expository(Marzano, 2001, p. 118) Describe the new content to which a person is exposed Example: Career day- the teacher provides a brief explanation of about each career to students prior to speakers giving their presentation
Narrative(Marzano, 2001, p. 119) Present information in a story format Example: Tornadoes- the teacher tells students about a personal experience with tornadoes prior to watching a video on tornadoes
Skimming(Marzano, 2001, p. 119) Looking over information prior to reading it; becoming familiar with, not being an expert Example: Science class- the teacher gives students two maps of the stars to “skim over” prior to taking a field trip to a Planetarium
Graphic Organizers(Marzano, 2001, p. 119 & 120) A non-linguistic representation of information Mind map Example: French class- prior to showing a slide show about French painters, the teacher presented the class with a graphic organizer identifying the painters and their work-students are able to take notes as they watch the slide show