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Tyre Recycling in the European Union. Dr. Valerie L. Shulman Secretary General, ETRA. ETRA : The European Tyre Recycling Association. Founded in 1994, with 19 members in 5 EU States ETRA has ±250 members in 43 countries, including each EU State;

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tyre recycling in the european union

Tyre Recycling in the European Union

Dr. Valerie L. Shulman

Secretary General, ETRA

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slide2
ETRA : The European Tyre Recycling Association
  • Founded in 1994, with 19 members in 5 EU States
  • ETRA has ±250 members in 43 countries, including each EU State;
  • The mission : to develop tyre recycling as an environmentally and commercially sustainable European industry
  • Objectives: to develop and advance policies that support the industry;

to expand and develop markets;

to development and implement professional standards;

to prepare and promote guidelines for materials, products,

applications;

to provide communication links

  • Membership is open to the public and private sectors

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post consumer tyres
Post-consumer tyres
  • ~ 3,250,000 tonnes of post-consumer tyres are permanently removed each year from cars and trucks in the 27 EU States - and defined as waste
  • It is estimated that an additional ~60,000 to 70,000 tonnes of post-consumer tyres are permanently removed each year from agricultural and other off-road vehicles in the 27 EU States - but not defined as waste

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the raw materials
The raw materials

Rubber compounds - throughout the tyre : treads, sidewalls, etc.

Plies andbelts : layers of brass coated steel with rubber

Bead wire : Cords of high tensile steel that give form to the tyre

Casing : Made of metal, rayon, nylon. Polyester cords

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composition by weight of tyres
Composition by weight of tyres

The rubber compounds, metals and textiles are recovered through material recycling

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recycling makes sense
Recycling makes sense
  • It requires 121,000BTUs to produce 1 kg of new rubber materials
  • It requires only 2,200BTUs to produce 1 kg of clean granulate or powder.

Put another way,the Co2 equivalent for 1kg of rubber is :

4,351 for Natural rubber

3,409 for SBR

0,097 for recycled rubber

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considering energy use
Considering energy use

The production of 1 tonne of rubber requires the following :

  • Natural rubber requires the same amount of energy as driving from Brussels to Singapore (about 10,560km)
  • Synthetic rubber (SBR) requires the equivalent of driving from Rome to Sidney Australia (15,000km)
  • Recycled rubber is a much shorter trip - it uses the equivalent of a 400 km ride from Paris (France) to Geneva (Switzerland)

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means of tyre valorisation
Means of tyre valorisation
  • Re-use and or export
  • Retreading
  • Material recycling including :
      • Civil engineering and construction applications
      • Environmental rehabilitation projects
      • Consumer and industrial products
  • Energy recovery for :
      • Co-incineration
      • Cement kilns

Each form of valorisation requires a consistent flow of input

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the attainment level 2005 6
The attainment level : 2005-6

In 2005-6, ±2 669 219 tonnes of post-consumer tyres were treated in an

environmentally sound manner within the 25 States of the EU.

± 222 975 tonnes : export (± 7%)

± 333 250 tonnes : retreading (± 10,5%)

±1 012 920 tonnes :material recycling (± 31,8%)

±1 100 075 tonnes : energy recovery (±34,5%)

Together, ±83,8% of post-consumer tyres were diverted from landfills.

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elements of the recycling process
Elements of the recycling process
  • Collecting (manual)
  • Sorting
  • Pre-treating
      • Debeading
      • Cutting
  • Processing (mechanical)
      • Shredding
      • Granulating
          • Sieving
          • Packaging
          • Storing
          • Delivering

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the start of tyre recycling collecting
The start of tyre recycling : Collecting
  • Knowing where the tyres are
    • At small individual sites :
      • Garages, tyre shops, small retailers, vehicle sales
    • At large communal depots
      • Tyre distributors
      • Fleet managers
      • Municipal depots
      • Vehicle dismantlers
  • Knowing how to move the tyres

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basic collection information
Category

Off road/agricultural tyres

Truck tyres

Bus tyres

Utility tyres

Passenger car tyres

Winter tyres

Approx. Wt./ tyre

170 kg

56 kg

54 kg

8 kg

7 kg

8kg

Basic collection information

Tyres p/tonne

5.88

17.86

18.52

125

142.60

125

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slide15
EU Collection systems

Sweden

Finland

Producer responsibility

Free market system

Norway

Adaptation

Estonia

In transition

Latvia

Denmark

Lithuania

Ireland

Poland

UK

Holland

Germany

Belgium

Czech Republic

Lux

Slovakia

France

Austria

Hungary

Romania

Slovenia

Italy

Bulgaria

Portugal

Spain

Greece

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Cyprus

Malta

formula for tyre collection
Formula for tyre Collection
  • To move 1 tonne of tyres costs approximately 2€ per km
  • Passenger car tyres : 6 - 12 tonnes per delivery

15 tonnes in a walking floor truck

  • Truck tyres : approximately 14 - 15 tonnes per delivery

17 - 18 tonnes in a walking floor truck

  • Off-road tyres : 15 tonnes per delivery

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stacked tyres
Stacked tyres

Whole tyres are often stacked in a basketweave to save space - particularly when the tyres will be retreaded

Tyres for recycling are often transported in bulk - as whole, or as tyre cuts

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the next steps
The next steps

1. Sorting : Manual process

According to category : truck, passenger car, other

Road-worthy : undamaged with minimum 1.66mm tread

Retreadable : repairable casing in good condition

Non-retreadable : raw material for recycling

Many of these tyres are exported to other countries that have

less restrictive road-use standards

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slide19
Preparation for recycling

2. Pre-treatment : Manual processes

Removal of debris

Rinsing - remove dirt, etc.

Cutting in halves/quarters

Debeading

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truck tyre debeading
Truck tyre debeading
  • Truck tyres are debeaded
  • The steel is removed
  • A 60 second spurt at 150 kW/h/t is used
  • Clean tyre bead steel can substitute virgin material - dependent upon use

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tyre processing
Tyre processing
  • Shredding
  • Chipping
  • Granulating
  • Fine granulating
  • Powders
  • Material upgrading

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shred and chips
Shred and chips
  • Shredders can be mobile or fixed
  • Shred can vary in size from ±75mm to 300mm in any dimension.
  • Smaller shred, of <±100mm, can be used loose or compacted, in applications with or without binders
  • Chips, from ±15 - ±75mm, can be used in applications with or without binders

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cost use triangle
Cost-use-triangle

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the range of materials outputs
The range of materials : outputs
  • Since 1995, the range of post-consumer tyre materials produced and used has expanded - principally at the extremes
  • Larger materials, i.e., whole treated and untreated tyres, bales, shred, chips are increasingly selected by civil engineers
  • Smaller materials, i.e., granulate, powders, fine powders and specialised products (reclaim, devulcanisates, thermoplastic elastomers, etc.) are being selected by manufacturers of consumer and technical products
  • Recycling residues are increasingly used for specific innovative applications

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post consumer tyre materials
Post-consumer tyre materials

The changing balance of material production and use

Granulate

54%

Powders

10%

Whole tyres

12%

Specialty

Misc.

Shred/chips

15%

7%

2%

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slide29
Whole tyres
  • Whole tyres can be recycled without physical or chemical transformation
  • Principal methods of treatment include cutting into halves or quarters,
  • untreated or, treated by removing the beads or sidewalls, or by compression

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characteristics of whole tyres
Characteristics of whole tyres
  • Characteristics
  • Lightweight,
  • Low compacted density,
  • High void ratio,
  • Good compressibility,
  • Water permeability,
  • Thermal insulation
  • Non-biodegradable

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slide31
Examples of whole tyre uses

Slope stabilisation

Construction bale

Erosion control

Coastal and fluvial protection

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shred and chips1
Shred and Chips
  • Shred and chips are the result of mechanical processes by which tyres are fragmented into irregular pieces
  • Shred can vary in size from ±75mm to 300mm in any dimension.
  • Smaller shred, of <±100mm, can be used loose or compacted, in applications with or without binders
  • Chips, from ±15 - ±75mm, can be used in applications with or without binders

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characteristics of shred and chips
Characteristics of shred and chips
  • Characteristics
  • Lightweight,
  • Low compacted density,
  • High void ratio,
  • Good compressibility,
  • Water permeability 10-1 to
  • 10-3 m/s
  • Thermal insulation
  • Low earth pressure

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slide34
Examples of shred and chips

Compacted shred

Landfill cell

(geotextile)

Drainage systems

Loose shred

Building insulation

Loose unbound chips :

Compacted unbound chips

Bound chips

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granulate
Granulate
  • Granulate is the result of processing rubber to reduce it in size into finely dispersed particles from ±1mm to ±10mm
  • There are two principal methods of production : ambient and cryogenic
  • Ambient size reduction is the most common, particularly for larger truck tyres.

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characteristics of granulate
Characteristics of granulate

Characteristics

Variations are based upon

the treatment technology

Ambient : irregular shape; some thermal degradation due to treatment; reduced cross-linking

Cryogenic : regular shape and particle size; smooth, glossy surface; no surface decomposition or thermal stress

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slide37
Examples of granulate uses

Artificial turf

Road furniture

Road furniture

Running tracks

Artificial turf

Insulation

Indoor or outdoor

tiles/pavers

Children’s play grounds

Sports arenas

Sports stadia

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powders and fine powders
Powders and fine powders
  • Fine granulate is the result of ambient or cryogenic process-ing to obtain finely dispersed particles of less than ±2mm.
  • Powders and fine powders are the result of processing and post-treating the material to obtain finely dispersed particles of ±500µm - <1.mm

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characteristics of powders
Characteristics of powders

Characteristics

Powders are processed to modify one or more charac-teristic to restore some properties of virgin rubber.

Powders include reclaim, surface modified or re-activated material, elasto- meric alloys, among others.

They are most often used as ingredients in compounds that are mixed or blended with virgin material

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we ll continue to work on it
We’ll continue to work on it

Thank you for your attention

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the 15th annual european conference
The 15th AnnualEuropeanConference

on tyre recycling

Towards a Recycling society :

the challenge

2 - 5 April 2008 The Crowne Plaza Europa, Brussels

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