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  1. Sustainability, Infrastructure and Communities- Focus on Opportunities - Arpad Horvath Associate Professor Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of California, Berkeley horvath@ce.berkeley.edu February 14, 2007

  2. Outline of Presentation • Where is sustainability research today? • Sustainability research at UC Berkeley • Players, networks, timing, trends • Joint opportunities • Involvement of industry

  3. The Grand Vision: Sustainable Development • Definition: Meeting the needs of the current generation without sacrificing the ability of the future generations to meet their needs. (Brundtland Commission, 1987) • Maintain societal progress while improving environmental quality and quality of life • Environmental goals • reduce non-renewable resource use • manage renewable resource use for sustainability • reduce toxic substance emissions (heavy metals, solvents,) • reduce greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance emissions • Educate the stakeholders • Do good by doing well • profit = revenue - cost

  4. Environment Economy Social issues The Triple Bottom Line of Sustainability

  5. Courtesy: B. Boughton, DTSC

  6. Urban Communities of the Third Millennium Sustainable Livable Engaging Transit oriented Wired Renewable ENR, March 12, 2001, Cover Story

  7. Characterizing Sustainability Research • ~ 30 years of publications and projects • 1st phase: “we have a global problem” • Mostly descriptive, qualitative • Stated problem, categories of effects (e.g., air emissions), but few numbers • 2nd phase: “let’s analyze/blame someone” – low hanging fruit • Industries: automobile, chemical, petroleum, electric power, cement • Advent of industrial ecology, life-cycle assessment (LCA) • Mostly incomplete assessments (e.g., not all life cycle phases, inventory but no impact assessment) • Initial savings by companies • 3rd phase: more specific assessments • Data collection for specific studies • Services and network analysis, not just manufacturing processes and products • Supply-chain informed LCA • Advances in impact assessment

  8. Observations about Sustainability Research 1. Need to incorporate triple bottom line: environment, economy, equity - need a unified theory and implementation to link them 2. Sustainability solutions are integrated solutions - Need to learn from successful businesses 3. Need to assess a broad range of environmental effects – sustainability is not just about energy! 4. Need international networks for research and projects 5. Need quantitative studies 6. Need to analyze services, not just products and processes

  9. Integrated Facilities Engineering Companies in the U.S. Bechtel

  10. Percentage of Waste Recycled in the U.S., Late 1990s 100 % 80 60 40 20 0 Lead Asphalt Steel Aluminum Cans Concrete Rebars Paper Plastic Bottles Copper

  11. LCA Framework Source: U.S. EPA A concept and methodology to evaluate the environmental effects of a product or activity holistically, by analyzing the whole life cycle of a particular product, process, or activity (U.S. EPA, 1993).

  12. LCA – Life-Cycle Assessment (ISO 14040) Goal and scope Direct applications: definition *Product development *Product/process improvement * Strategic planning Inventory Interpretation * Policy making analysis * Marketing * Other Impact assessment LCA Methodology – ISO 14040

  13. Stage 1: Materials Extraction Stage 2: Materials Processing Stage 3: Component Manufacturing Stage 4: Assembly Stages 5 & 6: Use and Disposal Coal Mining Coal burning in power plant Electricity* Chromium Ore Mining Keyboard Extrusion Stainless Steel Chemical Reduction Iron Ore Mining Iron Plastics Injection Molding Monitor Oil Drilling Petrochemicals production Aluminum Electrolysis Rolling and Shot Peening Bauxite Ore Mining or recycled aluminum collection Housing Hard Drive Copper Ore Mining Copper Wire drawing Cooling Fan Computer Screws Video Card Cobalt Casserite Mining Wires Separation Motherboard Silicon Purification and polishing Refinement Quartz Mining Glass *This flowchart disregards all the forms of energy required for each stage of the supply chain (transportation fuel, electricity, etc) Figure 1: Life Cycle of a Computer C. Reich-Weiser, UCB

  14. “The 1.7 Kilogram Microchip” Williams, E. (2002) “The 1.7 Kilogram Microchip: Energy and Material Use in the Production of Semiconductor Devices.” ES&T, 36:5504-5510.

  15. Buildings and the Environment • Buildings integral part of infrastructure systems (or “civil systems”), and the boundaries between these terms are fuzzy • The built environment has a large impact on the natural environment, economy, health, and productivity • Buildings account for 17% of world’s fresh water withdrawals, 25% of world’s wood harvest, and 40% of world’s materials and energy flows

  16. U.S. Buildings and the Environment • The construction industry accounts for ~8% of U.S. GDP • Similar in industrialized countries, even bigger economic share in industrializing countries • U.S. construction industry larger than the GDP of 212 national economies (CA’s: 150 economies) • 54% of U.S. energy consumption is directly or indirectly related to buildings and their construction • In the U.S., buildings account for • 65% of electricity consumption • 30% of GHG emissions • 30% of raw material use • 30% of waste output (136 M tons annually) • 12% of potable water consumption

  17. Categories of Natural Resources • Energy • Raw materials • Land/Habitat • Terrestrial Ecosystems • Marine Ecosystems • Biodiversity etc.

  18. Ecosystems and Biodiversity • Terrestrial and marine ecosystems greatly endangered • Loss of forest, oil spills, overfishing, etc. • Current rate of extinction is several orders of magnitude greater than the natural background • In the U.S.: • over 500 known species are now extinct • 1,200 species listed as endangered

  19. Consortium on Green Design and Manufacturing • Multidisciplinary campus group integrating engineering, policy, public health, and business in green engineering, management, and pollution prevention  • Strategic areas: • Civil infrastructure systems • Electronics industry • Servicizing products • 9 faculty from Civil and Environmental Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Haas School of Business, Energy and Resources Group, School of Public Health • 10 current Ph.D. students • 28 alumni Since 1993 http://cgdm.berkeley.edu

  20. Green Engineering and Management Research Network at UC Berkeley • Consortium on Green Design and Manufacturing (CGDM) • Network for Energy and Environmentally Efficient Economy (N4E) • Center for Future Urban Transport, A Volvo Center of Excellence • Urban Sustainability Initiative (USI) • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory (RAEL) • Project Production Systems Laboratory (P2SL) • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) • Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI)

  21. Green Engineering & Management: Some Recent Research Projects (1999-2006) • Infrastructure: • Buildings • Pavements • Electricity generation • Water treatment • Used oil • Shredder residue • Freight transportation • Electronics industry: • Computer plastics recycling • Services: • Telework/telecommuting • News delivery using wireless and wired telecommunications • Teleconferencing versus business travel

  22. Green Engineering & Management: Selection of Current Research Projects • Infrastructure: • Passenger transportation modes • Green logistics • Building life cycle and indoor air quality • Data centers • Services: • Digital media through wired and wireless telecommunications

  23. Urban Sustainability Initiative • Joint effort of UC Berkeley, the U.S. National Academies, and non-governmental organizations (Urban Age, Healthy Communities Network) • Goal: combine cutting edge research and development with innovative capacity building programs and a global information & exchange network to foster the spread of effective urban sustainability practices and technologies in growing cities throughout the developing world. • Facilitate linkages between project partners, local scientific communities, civil society, the private sector and the official leadership of rapidly growing cities; • Accelerate the application of existing technologies and practices, and the development and demonstration of new technologies and practices that improve the environment; • Creating an extensive urban sustainability information network to share technologies and best practices for the benefit of cities around the world. • Create “living laboratories” in cities in Asia, Latin America, and Africa, and to test new approaches of environmentally sustainable urban development.

  24. UCB Preliminary Inventory 2005 Required and Optional Reporting to California Climate Action Registry 6.4 metric tons/person Source: Fahmida Ahmed, CalCAP

  25. Trends

  26. “Carbon Performance” Each of these campuses looks at emissions sources comparable to the “required and selected optional reporting” package. Source: Fahmida Ahmed, CalCAP

  27. “Engineering for Sustainability and Environmental Management” Certificate Program http://sustainable-engineering.berkeley.edu/

  28. Players, Networks in the U.S. • Universities • Carnegie Mellon, Michigan, Arizona State, Texas, Washington • Research labs (e.g., Lawrence Berkeley National Lab) • The leaders are ICT companies • LEED as a green scoring system

  29. Exciting Times in the U.S…. • AB 32, Global Warming Solutions Act, by 2020, return GHG emissions to 1990 levels (and boost annual GSP by $60B and create 17,000 jobs) • UC Berkeley’s $500M Energy Biosciences Institute (BP-funded) • U.S. considering GHG reduction legislation and industrial action The Economist, 4/29/04

  30. Greening Building Practices in China • Tasks: • Assess the current construction practices of commercial buildings and high-rise residential buildings in China. • Recommend environmentally less burdensome building materials and processes. • Short term: Focus on major materials (e.g., concrete, steel, aluminum, flooring, with special focus on cement) and processes (e.g., construction equipment, temporary materials). • Later: evaluate the engineering, economic and environmental feasibility of using waste materials and byproducts (such as fly ash, demolition material, waste tires) in construction.

  31. Indoor Air Quality in China • Task: • Assess the effect of the indoor environments on building occupants. • What are the indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of using common building (e.g., carpet and paint) and maintenance materials (e.g., cleaners)? • What are the IAQ implications from the introduction of pollution from outdoor air? China has severely polluted urban air and might consider IAQ control by means of filtering supply air in addition to controlling indoor emission sources.

  32. Opportunities to Use Innovations in Practice • Need to get all the stakeholders networking and integrating (clients want intergated, packaged services, want to deal with one company) • Need to get problem focused • problems are global • GHG and other environmental studies of U.S., Chinese, Indian, etc. companies, industries, government entities • ICT industry: Data centers study, construction, operation • Biofuels • Lean and green

  33. Alteration & Decommissioning Purposes Design Concepts Product Design Fabrication & Logistics Commissioning Design Criteria Process Design Operations & Maintenance Detailed Engineering Installation Project Definition Lean Design Lean Supply Lean Assembly Use Production Control Work Structuring Learning Loops Connecting Green and Lean: Project Production Systems Laboratory • Develop new project management theory based on understanding of production systems (esp. Toyota Production System) • Reform project management practice http://p2sl.berkeley.edu

  34. Opportunities in Research and Development • Location: U.S., Europe, China • Transformational, interdisciplinary research and development • Modeling of infrastructure • Sustainability metrics • E.g., green building scoring system for the EU • LCA model for Finland, Nordic countries, EU • Data centers • Computer-based decision-support tools • Education • Joint educational initiatives in, e.g., China

  35. Opportunities for Industrial Involvement • GHG developments in California, U.S., China, India • Scientific and management knowledge transfer, consulting • service industries, and their supply chains have a tremendous opportunity to present a unified product (e.g., Bechtel, Xerox, Kodak) • ICT industries • Biofuels • Data centers • ICT products/services helping urban communities (e.g., telework, mobile work) • Green does not have to be synonimous with cheap • Green can bring competitive advantages

  36. Industrial Ecology • “The (deliberate and rational) concept requires that an industrial system be viewed not in isolation from its surrounding systems, but in concert with them. • It is a systems view in which one seeks to optimize the total materials cycle from virgin material, to finished material, to component, to product, to obsolete product, to ultimate disposal. • Factors to be optimized include resources, energy, and capital.” – Graedel and Allenby

  37. Future Work • Continued adaptation of the latest environmental science and management methods and results • hybrid LCA • Need to assess indirect as well as direct environmental effects, and reveal the supply chain implications • Takeback, recycling regulations • Revisit past research questions, and redo some analyses • Quantify the benefits on society • Focus on impact assessment, not just on inventory • Embrace analysis of social effects

  38. Future Plans • Campus research center in “Technology and Sustainability.” • Formalize “Technology and Sustainability” certificate program. • Accelerate research on green and lean project delivery. • Develop green modules for engineering courses. • Involve more faculty in teaching and research.

  39. Buildings and the Environment • Buildings integral part of infrastructure systems (or “civil systems”), and the boundaries between these terms are fuzzy • The built environment has a large impact on the natural environment, economy, health, and productivity • Buildings account for 17% of world’s fresh water withdrawals, 25% of world’s wood harvest, and 40% of world’s materials and energy flows

  40. U.S. Buildings and the Environment • The construction industry accounts for ~8% of U.S. GDP • Similar in industrialized countries, even bigger economic share in industrializing countries • U.S. construction industry larger than the GDP of 212 national economies (CA’s: 150 economies) • 54% of U.S. energy consumption is directly or indirectly related to buildings and their construction • In the U.S., buildings account for • 65% of electricity consumption • 30% of GHG emissions • 30% of raw material use • 30% of waste output (136 M tons annually) • 12% of potable water consumption

  41. Economic sector Percent of GDP Cumulative Percent Services 20.4 20.4 Finance, insurance, real estate 19.4 39.8 Retail trade 8.8 48.6 Wholesale trade 6.9 55.5 Government 12.7 68.2 Communications 2.6 70.8 Transportation 3.2 74.0 Construction 4.1 78.1 Electric, gas, sanitary services 2.6 80.7 Manufacturing 17.0 97.7 Mining 1.5 99.2 Agriculture, forestry, fishing 1.6 ~100 Composition of the U.S. GDP (2002) U.S. Department of Commerce, www.census.gov The Economist, May 8, 2003

  42. Cities of the Third Millennium Sustainable Livable Engaging Transit oriented Wired Renewable ENR, March 12, 2001, Cover Story

  43. Characteristics of Civil Systems • Products and processes • Manufacturing and service • Long service lifetimes • Slower obsolescence (?) compared to industrial products • Large, complicated, in the public eye • Considered “underfunded”, “in bad shape” (ASCE Report Card 1998, 2001, 2005) • Decisions have significant economic, environmental and social consequences

  44. Current Issues - General • Visual and physical impacts of infrastructure • Reduction of materials use • End-of-life options: landfilling, reuse, recycling • Environmental discharges (to air, water, land and underground wells) in all phases of construction • Hazardous and non-hazardous waste generation and disposal • Environmental efficiency of construction equipment • Energy implications of construction etc.

  45. Current Issues - Specific • Toxic chemical emissions • Conventional pollutant emissions • Greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting chemicals use and emissions • Embedded energy in construction materials • Energy consumption by construction machines • Nonrenewable and renewable resource use • Reuse and recycling of construction materials • Solid and nonsolid waste implications • etc.

  46. Existing Solutions • Rating tools • EIA • LCA

  47. How Much Material Do We Use? • A total of 2.8 billion metric tons of different materials used in the U.S. in 1995 (USGS) • ~3.5 billion metric tons in 2000 • 81% by volume were construction materials, mostly stone, and sand and gravel

  48. Use of Construction Mineral and Material Commodities in the U.S. [ton] Ewell ME (2001), Mining and quarrying trends. Minerals Yearbook, Vol I–Metals and Minerals. U.S. Geological Survey

  49. Current Design Method Current building design decisions are made based on: • Safety • Functionality • Cost Environmental issues are often only addressed qualitatively or simplistically (e.g., using recycled-content flooring or lead-free paint)