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ANALISIS dan PERANCANGAN SISTEM (INFORMASI) Catur Iswahyudi, S.Kom, S.E Email:email@example.com Blog:catur.dosen.akprind.ac.id Department of Informatics Engineering Institute of Science and Technology AKPRIND
Gambaran Umum • Tujuan : • Agar mahasiswa mengerti dan mampu menggunakan teknik-teknik serta perangkat untuk analisis, perancangan, dan pemodelan sistem. • Kompetensi : • Mampu mengimplementasikan Analisis & Perancangan Sistem menggunakan alat bantu perangkat lunak • Prasyarat : • S1 – Sistem Informasi (TIFS 1407) • Penunjang : • Prakt. Analisis & Perancangan Sistem • Tools : • Easy CASE • Microsoft Access • Microsoft Visio • Microsoft Project
MATERI • Pendahuluan : Kontrak Pembelajaran, RPP • Konsep Dasar Sistem • Analisis Sistem • Siklus Hidup Sistem • Perancangan Sistem Secara Umum • Pendekatan Perancangan Terstruktur • Flowchart • Perancangan Sistem Terinci (Output dan Input) • Perancangan Sistem Terinci (Basisdata) • Pemodelan Sistem (DFD) • Pengujian dan Jaminan Kualitas Sistem • Manajemen pengembangan sistem • Study Kasus
PUSTAKA • Kenneth E. Kendall dan Julie E. Kendall, System Analysis and Design 8th Edition, Pearson Education Ltd, 2011 (printed only) • Gary B. Shelly dan Harry J. Rosenblatt, System Analysis and Design 8th Edition, Course Technology, 2010 (ebook available) • Arthur M. Langer, Analysis and Design of Information Systems 3rd Edition, Springer-Verlag London Limited, 2008 (ebook available) • Jeffrey L. Whitten dan Lonnie D. Bentley, Systems Analysis and Design Methods 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2007 (ebook available)
Administratif • Penilaian : • Tugas : 50 % • UTS : 20 % • UAS : 20 % • Kehadiran : 10 % • Syarat ikut UAS, kehadiran min. 75% dari kehadiran dosen (0,75x14=10,5) • Dasar : Surat Edaran no. 231/Rek/II/2011 • Jumlah Ijin maks 4 kali
Penilaian Acuan Patokan • Skor Nilai Akhir : • Dasar : SK No. 073/Skep/Rek/2008, tanggal 20 Peb 2008 • NA = 0,5*Tugas+0,2*UTS+0,2*UAS+0,1*Hadir • A NA = 80 – 100 • B NA = 60 – 79 • C NA = 40 – 59 • D NA = 20 – 39 • E NA = 0 - 19
Strategi Perkuliahan • Kuliah tatap muka (40%) • Mengantarkan pokok bahasan dan menjelaskan isi dari sub pokok bahasan secara berurutan. • Diskusi dan tugas (60%) • Pendalaman materi berupa latihan soal akan dilakukan pada pertemuan tertentu, untuk dikerjakan secara individu dan/atau berkelompok serta dipecahkan bersama-sama kelompoknya. • Tugas diberikan 4 kali dalam satu semester; 2 sebelum UTS dan 2 sebelum UAS • Quiz (optional) dilakukan 1 kali dalam satu semester; dengan tidak terjadwal • Setiap bahan bacaan yang dijadikan materi pada setiap tatap muka harus sudah dibaca terlebih dahulu sebelum mengikuti perkuliahan agar mahasiswa lebih mudah mengikuti acara perkuliahan • Mahasiswa WAJIB mengerjakan tugas-tugas (latihan soal) yang akan diberikan setelah acara perkuliahan
Download materi • Staff site: elista.akprind.ac.id/staff/catur/APSI • Update setiap hari KAMIS (cek untuk update materi dan tugas)
Kalender Akademik • Kuliah : 19 Sept 2011 – 6 Jan 2012 • UTS : 7 – 18 Nopember 2011 • Pengganti : 9 – 11 Jan 2012 • UAS : 16 Jan – 27 Feb 2012
How to get “A” grade ? • Attend classes regularly. On time. Listen and train to pay attention. Make sure you get all missed assignments (by contacting the lecture or another student) • Take advantage of extra credit opportunities when offered. Care about your grades and are willing to work to improve yourself • Attentive in class. Don't talk, read, or stare out windows. Turn your mobile phone off ! In other words, You are polite and respectful, even if you get a little bored • See your lecture before or after class or during office hours about grades, comments on your papers, and upcoming tests. End up at your lecture's office door at least once during the semester • Turn in assignments that look neat and sharp. Take the time to produce a final product that looks good, and reflects of a care and pride in your work • Plus : english reading capability
Let’s start our programme • Ask these following questions : • What is IS ? • What does SDLC means ? • What is iceberg problem ? • Who are Systems Analysts ? • What are Technology Drivers for Today’s Information Systems ? GO GO GO GO GO
IS and IT A system is a group of interrelated components that function together to achieve a desired result. An information system (IS) is an arrangement of people, data, processes, and information technology that interact to collect, process, store, and provide as output the information needed to support an organization. Information technology is a contemporary term that describes the combination of computer technology (hardware and software) with telecommunications technology (data, image, and voice networks).
Types of Information Systems • A transaction processing system (TPS) is an information system that captures and processes data about business transactions. • A management information system (MIS) is an information system that provides for management-oriented reporting based on transaction processing and operations of the organization. • A decision support system (DSS) is an information system that either helps to identify decision making opportunities or provides information to help make decisions.
Types of Information Systems (cont.) • An expert system is an information system that captures the expertise of workers and then simulates that expertise to the benefit of non-experts. • A communications and collaboration system is an information system that enables more effective communications between workers, partners, customers, and suppliers to enhance their ability to collaborate. • An office automation system is an information system that supports the wide range of business office activities that provide for improved work flow between workers. Back
Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) • Project Planning • System Analysis • System Design • Construction/Implementation • Integration and Testing • Installation • Operation & Maintenance Testing
SDLC Phases • Project Planning • Put project in context • Small part of a much larger system? • New system or modify old? • System Analysis • Define user requirements • Analyze tasks • Develop specifications • System Design - Define the system to be built • Logical design • Physical design
SDLC Phases (continued) • Construction • Write (or buy) the code • Integration and Testing • Unit testing, system testing, acceptance testing • Installation • Testing, training, conversion • Operations & Maintenance • Put into production • Fix bugs, add facilities
The Classic Waterfall Methodology END PRODUCTS STAGES Planning/definition Project proposal report System proposal report Study/analysis Design Design specifications Program code Programming Installation Testing and installation Maintenance Postimplementation audit Milestone 2 Design solution decision Milestone 4 Production decision OPERATIONS Milestone 1 Project initiation Milestone 3 Design specification sign-off Year 1 Year 2 3-8 year lifespan
Difficulties in Software Development • Sotware quality: whether the software “fits for purpose”, satisfies all user requirements. • Example failures • It might work, but dreadful to use (user) • It is pretty, but does not do anything useful (user) • Users and owners may not know how to ask for what they really want, e.g. “We built what they said they wanted” (developer) • Budget and time constraints often conflict with doing the job properly, e.g. “There was not enough time to do it any better” (developer) • Difficulties for the possession of blended skills, e.g. “Do not blame me, I never done object-oriented analysis before” (developer)
Software Development Process • Subdividing the process of software development into different phases • Ease of management to produce appropriate quality standard and to stay within the allocated budgest • Help to identify and allocate developers’ skills appropriately, and thus improve the quality of the task completion • Known as project life cycle model
Difficulties in Software Development • Productivity: the progress of the project, and the resources (including time and money) that it consumes along the way (much related to project management) • Example failures • A system that is promised but not delivered (user) • It is no use delivering now, we need it last April (owner) • Projects that overspend their budget (owner) • Requirements drift, e.g. user changes their minds frequently(develper) • Implementation not feasible, e.g. we said it was impossible, but no-one listened (developer) How to overcome them?
Project Life Cycle Don´t blindly follow the path to automation. The very first question is whether or not you even need a computer system...” • Two important precursor phases are • Strategic Information Systems Planning • Business Modelling • Focus on organisation needs • They are not computational • Universially accepted for commercially oriented computer system development
Generic Life Cycle Models • The Waterfall Model • Prototyping • Iterative and Incremental Development • The Unified Process Life Cycle
Requirements specification • Functional specification • Acceptance test specifications • Unit test report • Sub-system test report • System test report • Acceptance test report • Completed system • Software architecture specification • System test specification • Design specification • Sub-system test specification • Unit test specification • Change requests • Change request report Waterfall Life Cycle
Waterfall Life Cycle • The traditional life cycle (TLC) for information systems development. • So called because of the difficulty of returning to an earlier phase. • The drawback of the waterfall model is the difficulty of accommodating change after the process is underway
The cost of this form of iteration increases as the project progresses making it impractical and not effective TLC with Iteration
Problems with TLC • Real projects rarely follow such a simple sequential life cycle • Lapsed time between systems engineering and the final installation is long • Iterations are almost inevitable in real projects but are expensive & problematic with the TLC • Unresponsive to changes during project as iteration is difficult • Therefore, this model is only appropriate when the requirements are well-understood
Strengths of TLC • Provide a very structured way to system development • Tasks in phases may be assigned to specialized teams. • Project progress evaluated at the end of each phase, and assessment made as to whether the project should proceed
Prototyping Life Cycle • Not intended to deliver the final working system • Quickly built up to explore some aspects of the system • May be used as part of other iterative life cycle
Prototyping – Advantages • Early demonstrations of system functionality help identify any misunderstandings between developer and client • Client requirements that have been missed are identified • Difficulties in the interface can be identified • The feasibility and usefulness of the system can be tested, even though, by its very nature, the prototype is incomplete
Prototyping – Problems: • The client may perceive the prototype as part of the final system • The prototype may divert attention from functional to solely interface issues • Prototyping requires significant user involvement • Managing the prototyping life cycle requires careful decision making
Incremental Development The Spiral Model (Boehm, 1988)
Incremental Development • Iterative problem solving: repeats activities, each can be viewed as a mini-project • Incremental delivery, either external or internal release • New release = new functionality + (improved) previous release • Several approaches to structuring iterations • Define and implement the key system functions • Focus on one subsystem at a time • Define by complexity or risk of certain components
Unified Process Life Cycle The Unified Process System Development Life Cycle
Unified Process Life Cycle • Captures many elements of best practice • The phases are: • Inception is concerned with determining the scope and purpose of the project; • Elaboration focuses requirements capture and determining the structure of the system; • Construction's main aim is to build the software system; • Transition deals with product installation and rollout.
Choose Appropriate Life Cycle • TCL is highly predictive • Prototyping, Spiral and UP life cycle models are highly adaptive Predictive versus adaptive approaches to the SDLC Back
System Designers and System Builders System designer – a technical specialist who translates system users’ business requirements and constraints into technical solution. She or he designs the computer databases, inputs, outputs, screens, networks, and software that will meet the system users’ requirements. System builders – a technical specialist who constructs information systems and components based on the design specifications generated by the system designers.
Systems Analysts • Systems analyst – a specialist who studies the problems and needs of an organization to determine how people, data, processes, and information technology can best accomplish improvements for the business. • A programmer/analyst includes the responsibilities of both the computer programmer and the systems analyst. • A business analyst focuses on only the non-technical aspects of systems analysis and design.
The Systems Analyst as a Problem-Solver • By "Problems" that need solving, we mean: • Problems, either real or anticipated, that require corrective action • Opportunities to improve a situation despite the absence of complaints • Directives to change a situation regardless of whether anyone has complained about the current situation
Skills Needed by the Systems Analyst • Working knowledge of information technology • Computer programming experience and expertise • General business knowledge • General problem-solving skills • Good interpersonal communication skills • Good interpersonal relations skills • Flexibility and adaptability • Character and ethics