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Inauguration of LU Doctoral School: European Integration and Baltic Sea Region Studies (EIBSRS) Doctor of science: the latest European concept. Prof. K ę stutis Kri ščiūnas 2010 02 25. Issues. Contemporary situation in doctoral education and employment field

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prof k stutis kri i nas 2010 02 25

Inauguration of LU Doctoral School: European Integration and Baltic Sea Region Studies (EIBSRS)Doctor of science:the latest European concept

Prof. Kęstutis Kriščiūnas

2010 02 25

issues
Issues
  • Contemporary situation in doctoral education and employment field
  • Content of reforms in doctoral studies
  • European vision of doctoral studies /programmes:
    • new challenges/objectives for doctor’s/studies
    • requirements for doctor’s degree
    • requirements for doctor’s skills
    • vision of European model of doctoral studies

4. Peculiarities in doctor’s of science environment

changing nature of doctoral programmes
Changing nature of doctoral programmes
  • Growing demand of highly qualified labor force in the labor market (graduates with doctor’s qualification (degree)?)
  • The need to move from “apprenticeship” to doctor’s programme:
    • From vocational to generic qualification (based on broad scholarship)
    • Development of skills
    • Diversity of possible doctoral qualifications (professional, practice-based)
  • Diversity of contingent
  • Growth of graduate schools (strong precondition)

Driving idea for change:

..”the product that the PhD researcher creates is not the thesis – vital though that is to their subject area through the creation of original knowledge – no, the product of their study is the development of themselves” [Sir Gareth Roberts]

slide9

What skills make doctoral graduate of social sciences and economics more employable?

- analytical skills

- methodological knowledge and skills

- communication and presentation skills

- management skills

- international, intercultural experience and competence working in such environment

- language skills

- people and relationship management skills

- computer science skills

- hard science knowledge (to a certain degree) – eg statistics

- interdisciplinary skills and knowledge – broader picture and understanding of the world

- entrepreneurship

- socials skills in different context (in different socio-economic environments)

- creative thinking, innovation (thinking out of box) – new ideas beyond disciplines

  • ethics
  • problem solving
  • fundraising
new approach to
New approach to

Doctoral Programmes

and to

Dissertations

ministers meeting in berlin in september 2003 added an action line to the bologna process entitled
Ministers meeting in Berlin in September 2003 added an Action Line to the Bologna process entitled

“European Higher Education Area and European Research Area – two pillars of the knowledge based society” that underlines the key role of doctoral programmes and research training in this context.

“Conscious of the need to promote closer links between the EHEA and the ERA in a Europe of Knowledge, and of the importance of research as an integral part of higher education across Europe, Ministers consider it necessary to go beyond the present focus on two main cycles of higher education to include the doctoral level as the third cycle in the Bologna Process. They emphasize the importance of research and research training and the promotion of interdisciplinarity in maintaining and improving the quality of higher education and in enhancing the competitiveness of European higher education more generally. Ministers call for increased mobility at the doctoral and postdoctoral levels and encourage the institutions concerned to increase their cooperation in doctoral studies and the training of young researchers.”

slide13
Salzburg principles

http://www.eua.be/eua/en/Salzburg_Seminar.jspx

1 the core component of doctoral training is the advancement of knowledge through original research
1. THE CORE COMPONENT OF DOCTORAL TRAINING IS THEADVANCEMENT OF KNOWLEDGE THROUGH ORIGINAL RESEARCH

At the same time it is recognised that

doctoral training must increasingly meet

the needs of an employment market

that is wider than academia

2 embedding in institutional strategies and policies
2. EMBEDDING IN INSTITUTIONAL STRATEGIES AND POLICIES

universities as institutions need toassume responsibility for ensuring that thedoctoral programmes and research trainingthey offer are designed to meet new challengesand include appropriate professional careerdevelopment opportunities

3 the importance of diversity
3.THE IMPORTANCE OF DIVERSITY

the rich diversityof doctoral programmes in Europe – includingjoint doctorates – is a strength which has to beunderpinned by quality and sound practice

4 doctoral candidates as early stage researchers
4. DOCTORAL CANDIDATES AS EARLY STAGE RESEARCHERS

should be recognized as professionals – with commensurate rights – who make a key contribution to the creation of new knowledge

5 the crucial role of supervision and assessment
5. THE CRUCIAL ROLE OF SUPERVISION AND ASSESSMENT

in respect of individual doctoral candidates, arrangements for supervision and assessment should be based on a transparent contractual framework of shared responsibilities between:

  • doctoral candidates
  • supervisors
  • the institution (and where appropriate including other partners)
6 achieving critical mass
6. ACHIEVING CRITICAL MASS
  • Doctoral programmes should seek to achieve critical mass and should draw on different types of innovative practice being introduced in universities across Europe, bearing in mind that different solutions may be appropriate to different contexts and in particular across larger and smaller European countries.
  • These range from graduate schools in major universities to international, national and regional collaboration between universities
7 duration
7. DURATION
  • doctoral programmes should operate within appropriate time duration (three to four years full-time as a rule)
8 the promotion of innovative structures
8. THE PROMOTION OF INNOVATIVE STRUCTURES
  • tomeet the challenge of interdisciplinary

trainingand

  • the development of transferableskills
9 increasing mobility
9. INCREASING MOBILITY

Doctoral programmes:

  • should seek to offer geographical as well as

interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral mobility and

  • international collaboration within an integrated

framework of cooperation between universities and other partners.

1 0 ensuring appropriate funding
10. ENSURING APPROPRIATE FUNDING
  • the developmentof quality doctoral programmes and
  • the successful completion by doctoral candidates
  • requires appropriate and sustainablefunding
slide26

EUROPEAN VISION OF

DOCTORAL STUDIES /PROGRAMMES

the results of modernization process of doctoral studies
The results of modernization process of doctoral studies
  • Doctoral studies in the EU countries are in deep and wide modernization process yet
  • The expected result of doctoral studies:

doctor

    • competent in the field (knowledge in the field + transferable skills)
    • capable (generic + transferable skills) make effective research and communicate it
slide28
The results of modernization of doctoral studies(the aspects of doctoral studies without general contradictions)

Unique meaning

  • universities have “proprium and monopoly” to prepare doctors and issue scientific degrees
  • Universities are responsible for doctor’s quality, although other institutions (private, research, etc.) could participate in the process
  • Doctors degree is unique
  • Dissertation remains as the main instrument of doctor’s educating
  • Transferable skills being necessary for doctor should be developed specifically

Acceptance in general

  • Doctoral students should be educated in Doctoral schools
  • Consultants from adjacent scientific fields should attend in the process
  • Every doctoral student should have specific plan of his/her studies and research
  • Trilateral agreement
    • Double status of doctoral student
the results of modernization of doctoral studies the disputed yet aspects
The results of modernization of doctoral studiesthe disputed (yet) aspects
  • necessity of “European doctor” with common requirements and standards
  • concept, organization and structure
  • requirements for doctor’s dissertation and the competence/expertise for the doctor
  • subjects studied during doctoral studies
  • content and structure of dissertation
  • publication of scientific results
  • ECTS utilization in doctoral studies
example of good practice
Example of good practice

Doctoral Scholl

at Imperial College London

slide31

Developing skills programmes: a broader perspective on research training (Professor Mary Ritter Pro-Rector, Postgraduate Affairs,Director Graduate School of Life Sciences and Medicine Imperial College London)

w here does e urope stand in research training versus the us and j apan
Where does Europe stand in research training versus the US and Japan?

Ph’D in Science and Technology (S&T):

  • EU-15: 0.56 (per 1000 inhabitants)aged between 25 and 34 years
  • Sweden: 1.24
  • Finland: 1.01
  • US: 0.41
  • Japan: 0.25
  • Italy: 0.10

But the employment rate in Europe is smaller:

    • EU-15: 5.4 researchers per 1000 labour force
    • US: 8.7
    • Japan: 9.7
european science technology graduates who decide to work abroad go to the us
European Science & Technology graduates who decide to work abroad go to the US
  • about 4% out of the total pool of European human resources in S&T (or, roughly estimated, 400 000 out of 11 million) are living/working in the US
  • nearly 75% of European Ph’D recipients at US universities prefer to stay in the US after their PhD
  • moreover, ‘lost human capital’ hasincreased substantially during the last decade: from 49% in 1990 to 73% in 1999.
slide39

Inauguration of LU Doctoral School: European Integration and Baltic Sea Region Studies (EIBSRS)Doctor of science:the latest European conceptTHANK YOU FOR ATTENTION!

Prof. Kęstutis Kriščiūnas