animal reproduction and development
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Animal Reproduction and Development. Reproduction Song. Animals reproductive by asexual and sexual methods: Asexual is the production of offspring with genes all from one individual, without the fusion of gametes. Sexual involves formation of gametes and fertilization, genetic variation.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2
Animals reproductive by asexual and sexual methods:
  • Asexual is the production of offspring with genes all from one individual, without the fusion of gametes.
  • Sexual involves formation of gametes and fertilization, genetic variation

Asexual Methods Include:

Budding in Hydra Starfish Regeneration

Gemmules in Sponges

slide3
Parthenogenesis: an unfertilized egg develops

Honey bees: drones are males and are produced parthenogeneticly and female workers and queens form from fertilized eggs.

Queen Worker (female) Drone (male)

slide4
Sexual Reproduction

Hermaphroditism: individual has both male and female reproductive systems

Earthworm

slide5
Fertilization can occur externally or internally

Aquatic animals tend to be external

Terrestrial animals tend to be internal

Development can be external in the water, external on land, or internal.

Oviparous: lay eggs, Amniotic eggs are terrestrial eggs

Ovoviparous: live birth from eggs (some sharks and snakes)

Viviparous: live placental birth

slide6
What are the adaptive values of each style off sexual animal reproduction?

Number of Eggs: ?

Parental Care: ?

Habitat: ?

Introduction to Reproduction System

slide8
Reproductive System of the Human Male

Male Reproductive System video

Male Reproductive System detailed video

slide9
The male reproductive system produces sperm cells and provides a mechanism for delivering them to the female's body.

Identify the role of:

Testes

Epididymis

Vas deferens

Scrotum

slide14
Spermatogenesis

Meiosis produces gametes in the seminiferous tubules.

slide18
Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive System video

slide20
Oogenesis

This is the state of the egg when fertilized

slide24
Identify the stages of the cycle

What happens in the ovary, uterus, and pituitary glands?

Uterine Cycle video

Menopause: cessation of cycle, ages 46-54, ovaries lose response to FSH & LH

slide26
Cleavage occurs over several days following fertilization. The zygote divides as it travels through the oviduct. By the time the cilia of the oviduct deliver the embryo to the uterus, the embryo is a ball of cells called a blastocyst. The blastocyst implants in the endometrium.
slide27
A blastocyst forms nearly a week after fertilization

Four membranes protect and nourish the embryo, which consists of three tissue layers.

slide28
Nutrients and waste products are exchanged between the fetus and the mother within the placenta. The umbilical vein (red) carries oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to the fetus. The umbilical arteries are blue, indicating that they carry oxygen-depleted blood and waste products away from the fetus.
slide29
Placental circulation: materials are exchanged by diffusion, active transport, and selective absorption. Not by direct blood contact.

Structure and function of the placenta video

slide30
Human fetal development:

Amniotic Sac

5 weeks 14 weeks 20 weeks

Blood Incompatibility video

slide34
Name the phases and state of the organs.

Name the hormones:

Black:

Red:

Blue:

Green:

slide35
Animal Development

Epigenesis: animal emerges gradually from the egg

Preformation: shows infant in sperm from 1694 engraving “homunculus”

slide36
Fertilization in Mammals

Zona pellucida

Changes that occur in the egg after fertilization video

slide37
Cleavage partitions the zygote into many smaller cells

Rapid cell division without growth produces cells called blastomeres.

slide38
In both sea urchins and frogs first two cleavages are vertical.
  • The third division is horizontal.
  • The result is an eight-celled embryo with two tiers of four cells.
slide40
A blastocoel forms within the morula blastula

View the sea urchin development video on the CD

slide41
Gastrulation rearranges the blastula to form a three-layered embryo with a primitive gut

Development after fertilization video

slide43
Organogenesis forms the organs from the three embryonic germ layers

Organogenesis in a frog embryo

View frog development video on CD

slide44
Amniote embryos develop in a fluid-filled sac within a shell or uterus
  • The amniote embryo is an adaptation for reproduction in the terrestrial environment.
  • Shelled eggs of reptiles and birds.
    • Uterus of placental mammals.
slide45
Extraembryonic membranes in a chick

Identify the membranes that provide supporting functions

Protection from mechanical shock

Gas exchange

Disposal of uric acid

Nutrient source

slide46
Extraembryonic membranes in a chick

How extraembryonic membranes support chick video

slide47
The four extraembryonic membranes are the yolk sac, amnion, chorion, and allantois.

Cells of the yolk sac digest yolk providing nutrients to the embryo.

The amnion encloses the embryo in a fluid-filled amniotic sac which protects the embryo from drying out.

The chorion cushions the embryo against mechanical shocks.

The allantois functions as a disposal sac for uric acid.

slide48
Chick embryo 54 hours old

Most major organs have formed

Formation of structures in embryo video

slide50
Embryonic membranes – homologous with those of shelled eggs.
    • Chorion: completely surrounds the embryo and other embryonic membranes.
    • Amnion: encloses the embryo in a fluid-filled amniotic cavity.
    • Yolk sac: found below the developing embryo.
        • Develops from the hypoblast.
        • Site of early formation of blood cells which later migrate to the embryo.
    • Allantois: develops as an outpocketing of the embryo’s rudimentary gut.
    • Incorporated into the umbilical cord, where it forms blood vessels.
  • Organogenesis begins with the formation of the neural tube, notochord,and somites.
slide51
Embryonic membranes – homologous with those of shelled eggs.

Impact of Drugs and Chemicals on Fetal Development video

slide52
During labor, hormones stimulate the uterus to contract. The contractions push the baby out of the mother's body.
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