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  1. Research Paper Writing and Publication Huang Niangen PLA University of Science and Technology

  2. Abstract(摘要) • Functions of Abstract • Miniature of the text • The most important component of the paper, deciding the acceptance of the whole paper • Expanding the Circulation of the paper. Abstracts are read, retrieved and used more often than the text

  3. Abstract(摘要) • Linguistic Features • Length:200 words but never more than 500 words; 50 to 100 words for a short article • Contents of Abstracts: • Purpose or scope of the paper • Method of the research discussed in the paper • Results,conclusions and/or recommendations • Types of Abstracts:Descriptive and Informative

  4. Abstract(摘要) • Descriptive Abstracts • Indicative information on purpose, scope or methodology in the original document • Short ,self-contained in nature,a miniature of table of contents, easy to write • little information,with nothing about the results, conclusions or recommendations

  5. Abstract(摘要) • Samples of Descriptive Abstracts • This article discusses a range of recent major surveys of public attitudes toward biotechnolgy. A number of problematic features of the surveys are presented. • In this paper, I attempt to identify and describe some of the common threads that tie together work in reasoning about knowledge in such diverse fields as philosophy, economic, ... I briefly discuss some of the more recent work, and suggest some lines for future research.

  6. Abstract(摘要) • Samples of Descriptive Abstracts • This report presents an analysis of ... A comparison between A and B is made. It concludes that.... • In this paper, treated. ...Are defined. Are derived. It is shown that provided.

  7. Abstract(摘要) • Informative Abstracts • Original writings in miniature, • Besides the purpose, the scope and the methodology,the results are highlighted. • Specific and quantitative, condensed version of the research work. • Statement of at least three elements: • the problem • The approach to solving the problem • The principal result

  8. Abstract(摘要) Samples of Informative Abstracts • This paper examines ....The main example is ....The observations in this paper strongly suggest that ....Thus,... • The purpose of this paper is to examine.... The paper is divided into five parts concerning the five aspects of ...Respectively. Part I covers...Part II describes... Part III introduces ...Part IV considers.... Part V establishes ... The paper shows ... The results are obtained concerning ... Recommendations of ... are provided.

  9. Structure of Abstract • Three major parts contained in a comparatively complete abstract • Topic sentence: indicating the primary objectives of the paper,E.G.Ref .to the hands-out. • This paper presents a simple prescription for estimating the energy at which nuclear forces begin to play a role in heavy-ion Coulomb excitation and Coulomb fission experiments • Supporting sentences: research methods,experiments, procedures, investigations, calculations, analyses, results, etc,composing the main body • Concluding sentence(s): analyzing results, explaining the application, and indicating the significance of the research.

  10. Abstract Writing • Main Steps involved in writing abstracts • Finding the keywords and sentences • Listing the main points after your careful reading of the whole paper(table of contents, outlines) • Condensing each section to a sentence • Drafting: using new wording,not including opinions,examples,details and explanations; • Reading and editing for the final draft,seeking help from others (objectivity)

  11. Abstract Writing • 5 questions to answer in the course of the abstract drafting • What is the general knowledge of your topic in the academic field? • What research topic is the paper to focus on ? • What method or material do you use to support your main point of view? • What conclusion will you draw? • What is the main contribution of the paper?

  12. Abstract Writing • Special notes to abstract writing • Mixed styles: formal and informal; written and colloquial, • Over-simplified : either too brief or too general or global • Monotonous expressions:no variation of sentence structures • Incomplete contents and irrelevant information • Including background information but essential data and information

  13. Assignment • Rewrite your abstract • Read at least three abstracts from the first rate journals in your field,Study the organizations and give comments.Correct mistakes if there are any or rewrite them if you don’t agree the original • Get a first-class science and engineering journals and then compare your research paper’s notes and references with those of the authentic and standard journal you have at hand