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INTRODUCTION TO ROBOTICS. Presentation Objectives. Definition Types of Robot History Timeline Laws of Robotics Components Uses. Body Effectors Actuators Sensors Controller Software. Definition.

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presentation objectives
Presentation Objectives
  • Definition
  • Types of Robot
  • History
  • Timeline
  • Laws of Robotics
  • Components
  • Uses
  • Body
  • Effectors
  • Actuators
  • Sensors
  • Controller
  • Software
definition
Definition
  • “A re-programmable, multi-functional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks”

- Robot Institute of America, 1979

  • “An automatic device that performs functions normally ascribed to humans or a machine in the form of a human.”

- Webster's Dictionary

types of robot
Types of Robot
  • Simple Level Robots
  • Middle Level Robots
  • Complex Level Robots
  • Are automatic machines that extend human potential.
  • Do work that humans can but should not do.
  • Are programmable, multipurpose, electromechanical machines.
  • Do work that humans normally do.
  • Are reprogrammable, multifunctional, manipulators.
  • Are designed to move materials, tools and parts through programmed paths.
  • Are suited for a variety of tasks.
history
History
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) sketched plans for a humanoid robot around 1495. Da Vinci's notebooks, rediscovered in the 1950s, contain detailed drawings of a mechanical knight now known as Leonardo's robot, able to sit up, wave its arms and move its head and jaw.
  • In 1738 and 1739, Jacques De Vaucanson exhibited several life-sized automatons: a flute player, a pipe player and a duck. The mechanical duck could flap its wings, crane its neck, and swallow food from the exhibitor's hand, and it gave the illusion of digesting its food by excreting matter stored in a hidden compartment. Complex mechanical toys and animals built in Japan in the 1700s were described in the Karakuri zui (Illustrated Machinery, 1796).

(Tea-serving karakuri, with mechanism, 19th century. Tokyo National Science Museum.)

history1
History
  • The first industrial robot: UNIMATE
  • 1954: The first programmable robot is designed by George Devol, who coins the term Universal Automation. He later shortens this to Unimation, which becomes the name of the first robot company (1962).

UNIMATE originally automated the

manufacture of TV picture tubes

history2
History
  • 1978: The Puma (Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly) robot is developed by Unimation with a General Motors design support.

PUMA 560 Manipulator

history3
History
  • 1980s: The robot industry enters a phase of rapid growth. Many institutions introduce programs and courses in robotics. Robotics courses are spread across mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, and computer science departments.

Adept's SCARA robots

Cognex In-Sight Robot

Barrett Technology Manipulator

history4
History
  • 1995 - present: Emerging applications in small robotics and mobile robots drive a second growth of start-up companies and research

2003: NASA’s Mars Exploration Rovers will launch toward Mars in search of answers about the history of water on Mars

timeline

1206

First programmable humanoid robots

Boat with four robotic musicians

Al-Jazari

Timeline
  • Date:
  • Significance:
  • Robot Name:
  • Inventor:
timeline1

1206

1495

First programmable humanoid robots

Designs for a humanoid robot

Boat with four robotic musicians

Mechanical knight

Al-Jazari

Leonardo Da Vinci

Timeline
  • Date:
  • Significance:
  • Robot Name:
  • Inventor:
timeline2

1495

1738

Designs for a humanoid robot

Mechanical duck that was able to eat, flap its wings, and excrete

Mechanical knight

Digesting Duck

Leonardo Da Vinci

Jacques de Vaucanson

Timeline
  • Date:
  • Significance:
  • Robot Name:
  • Inventor:
timeline3

1738

1800s

Mechanical duck that was able to eat, flap its wings, and excrete

Japanese mechanical toys that served tea, fired arrows, and painted

Digesting Duck

Karakuri toys

Jacques de Vaucanson

Hisashige Tanaka

Timeline
  • Date:
  • Significance:
  • Robot Name:
  • Inventor:
timeline4

1800s

1921

Japanese mechanical toys that served tea, fired arrows, and painted

First fictional automata called "robots" appear in the play R.U.R.

Karakuri toys

Rossum's Universal Robots

Hisashige Tanaka

Karel Čapek

Timeline
  • Date:
  • Significance:
  • Robot Name:
  • Inventor:
timeline5

1921

1930s

First fictional automata called "robots" appear in the play R.U.R.

Humanoid robot exhibited at the 1939 and 1940 World's Fairs

Rossum's Universal Robots

Elektro

Karel Čapek

Westinghouse Electric Corporation

Timeline
  • Date:
  • Significance:
  • Robot Name:
  • Inventor:
timeline6

1930s

1948

Humanoid robot exhibited at the 1939 and 1940 World's Fairs

Simple robots exhibiting biological behaviors

Elektro

Elsie and Elmer

Westinghouse Electric Corporation

William Grey Walter

Timeline
  • Date:
  • Significance:
  • Robot Name:
  • Inventor:
timeline7

1948

1956

First commercial robot, from the Unimation company founded by George Devol and Joseph Engelberger, based on Devol's patents

Simple robots exhibiting biological behaviors

Elsie and Elmer

Unimate

William Grey Walter

George Devol

Timeline
  • Date:
  • Significance:
  • Robot Name:
  • Inventor:
timeline8

1956

1961

First commercial robot, from the Unimation company founded by George Devol and Joseph Engelberger, based on Devol's patents

First installed industrial robot

Unimate

Unimate

George Devol

George Devol

Timeline
  • Date:
  • Significance:
  • Robot Name:
  • Inventor:
timeline9

1961

1963

First installed industrial robot

First palletizing robot

Unimate

Palletizer

George Devol

Fuji Yusoki Kogyo

Timeline
  • Date:
  • Significance:
  • Robot Name:
  • Inventor:
timeline10

1963

1973

First palletizing robot

First robot with six electromechanically driven axes

Palletizer

Famulus

Fuji Yusoki Kogyo

KUKA Robot Group

Timeline
  • Date:
  • Significance:
  • Robot Name:
  • Inventor:
timeline11

1973

1975

First robot with six electromechanically driven axes

Programmable universal manipulation arm, a Unimation product

Famulus

PUMA

KUKA Robot Group

Victor Scheinman

Timeline
  • Date:
  • Significance:
  • Robot Name:
  • Inventor:
laws of robotics
Laws of Robotics
  • Law 1: A robot may not injure a human being or through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm
  • Law 2: A robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with a higher order law
  • Law 3: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with a higher order law
key components
Key Components

Power Conversion

Unit

Sensors

Actuators

Controller

User interface

Manipulator

Linkage

Base

components
Components

Body

  • Typically defined as a graph of links and joints:
  • A link is a part, a shape with physical properties.
  • A joint is a constraint on the spatial relations of two or more links.
components1
Components

Body (Types of joint)

Respectively, a ball joint, which allows rotation around x, y, and z, a hinge joint, which allows rotation around z, and a slider joint, which allows translation along x.

These are just a few examples…

components2
Components

Effectors

  • Component to accomplish some desired physical function
  • Examples:

– Hands

– Torch

– Wheels

– Legs

– Trumpet

components3
Components

Actuators

  • Common robotic actuators utilize combinations of different electro mechanical devices

– Synchronous motor

– Stepper motor

– AC servo motor

– Brushless DC servo motor

– Brushed DC servo motor

components4
Components

Actuators (Examples)

Pneumatic Cylinder

Hydraulic Motor

DC Motor

Stepper Motor

Stepper Motor

Servo Motor

components5
Components

Sensors

  • Human senses: sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell provide us vital information to function and survive
  • Robot sensors: measure robot configuration/condition and its environment and send such information to robot controller as electronic signals (e.g., arm position, presence of toxic gas)
  • Robots often need information that is beyond 5 human senses (e.g., ability to: see in the dark, detect tiny amounts of invisible radiation, measure movement that is too small or fast for the human eye to see)

Accelerometer Using Piezoelectric Effect

Flexiforce Sensor

components6
Components

Sensors

  • Vision Sensor: e.g., to pick bins, perform inspection, etc.

In-Sight Vision Sensors

  • Part-Picking: Robot can handle In-Sight Vision Sensors work pieces that are randomly piled by using 3-D vision sensor. Since alignment operation, a special parts feeder, and an alignment pallets are not required, an automatic system can be constructed at low cost.
components7

Example

Components

Sensors

  • Force Sensor: e.g., parts fitting and insertion, force feedback in robotic surgery
  • Tilt sensors: e.g., to balance a robot
components8
Components

Sensors

  • Imaging sensors: these create a visual representation of the world.

Here, a stereo

vision system

creates a depth

map for a Grand

Challenge

competitor.

components9
Components

Sensors

  • Proprioceptive sensors: these provide information on the robot’s internal state, e.g. the position of its joints.

Shaft decoders

count revolutions,

allowing for

configuration data

and odometer.

components10
Components

Controller

  • Provide necessary intelligence to control the manipulator/mobile robot
  • Process the sensory information and compute the control commands for the actuators to carry out specified tasks

Storage devices: e.g., memory to store the

control program and the state of the robot system

obtained from the sensors

components11
Components

Controller

  • There are two controller paradigms

– Open-loop controllers execute robot movement without feedback.

– Closed-loop controllers execute robot movement and judge progress with sensors. They can thus compensate for errors.

components12
Components

Software

  • Hybrid architectures are software architectures combining deliberative and reactive controllers.

– An example is path-planning and PD control.

  • The most popular hybrid software architecture is the three-layer architecture:
  • – Reactive layer – low-level control, tight sensor-action loop, decisions cycles (DCs) order of milliseconds.
  • – Executive layer – directives from deliberative layer sequenced for reactive layer, representing sensor information, localization, mapping, DCs order of seconds.
  • – Deliberative layer – generates global solutions to complex tasks, path planning, model-based planning, analyze sensor data represented by executive layer, DCs order of minutes.
slide37
Uses
  • Agriculture
  • Automobile
  • Construction
  • Entertainment
  • Health care: hospitals, patient-care, surgery , research, etc.
  • Laboratories: science, engineering , etc.
  • Law enforcement: surveillance, patrol, etc.
  • Manufacturing
  • Military: surveillance, attack, etc.
  • Mining, excavation, and exploration
  • Transportation: air, ground, rail, space, etc.
  • Utilities: gas, water, and electric
  • Warehouses
slide38
Uses
  • Jobs that are dangerous for humans

Decontaminating Robot

Cleaning the main circulating pump

housing in the nuclear power plant

slide39
Uses
  • Repetitive jobs that are boring, stressful, or labor-intensive for humans

Welding Robot

slide40
Uses
  • Menial tasks that human don’t want to do

Menial tasks that human

don’t want to do

slide41
Uses
  • Robots in Space

NASA Space Station

slide42
Uses
  • Robots in Hazardous Environments

TROV in Antarctica

operating under water

slide43
Uses
  • Medical Robots

Robotic assistant for

micro surgery

slide44
Thanking You......

Foysal MOHD Shawon

ID: 071-163-041

Group: (D)

Mob: 01913-258484

Email: foysalmohdshawon@gmail.com

Web page: www.foysal.synthasite.com

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