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Rapidly changing lifestyle • Industrialization changed the lifestyle of millions of people in a matter of a generation. • It still does today. • It brought rapid urbanization and • created a new industrial middle class • and an educated industrial working class. • It brought material benefits and new opportunities, • but also brought great hardships too • factory workers and miners, • Working women and children.
Urbanization: • growth of towns and cities. • Many people migrated from the farmlands because of the enclosure movement happening there. • Other workers were attracted by new job opportunities in new factories. • Industrialization improved life for the middle class • but the working class worked long hours for low pay and lived in wretched conditions.
Tenement: • there was no real housing for the new people, so landlords converted multi-story buildings into apartments. • Often one-room • Often 6-7 dwellers
Labor union: • workers organized to protect themselves from their companies’ abuses. Also demanded • better working conditions, • better pay, • job security. • EC: Later union demands would add: (6) • Benefits: • vacation; • overtime pay; • medical insurance, • dental insurance, • optical insurance, • retirement
Image, Graph Skills, p. 179 • Question: • About 6 million
Standards Check, p. 179 • Question: • Changes in farming….. • displaced farmers • caused population growth • increased demand for workers
Standards Check, p. 180 • Question: • Some staged futile protests • Others turned to Methodism
Primary Source, p. 181 • Question: • Workers in the factories and mines • Had a rigid work schedule • Worked long hours • Could not take breaks when they wanted
Standards Check, p. 182 • Question: • Men, women, and children worked long hours in unsafe conditions, for low pay. • Women had the double burden of feeding and clothing their families
Standards Check, p. 182 • Question: • With reforms came • Material benefits • New opportunities • Without reforms….. • Workers lived and worked in wretched conditions and poverty.
Thinking Critically, p. 183 • Questions: • 1a • The railway construction destroyed some areas but opened others to public view • 1b • Outraged • 2 • Engels is outraged at the poverty that the working class has suffered in the Industrial Revolution
End Homework • Begin Classwork