PREPARE FOR WINTER WEATHER • Wipers - Good working order • Windshield Washer Fluid - Fill Up • Anti-freeze - 50% water 50% Coolant • Battery & Belts - Check condition • Oil - Replace your oil with Winter grade oil • Tires - Check treads, pressure and owners manual recommendations • Ice Scraper - A necessity
BEFORE TRIPS: PACK WINTER CAR KIT • SNOW BRUSH W/ SCRAPER • FLASHLIGHT W/ BATTERIES • BLANKET • MITTENS, SOCKS & HAT • SMALL SHOVEL • SACK OF SAND OR KITTY LITTER • JUMPER CABLES • HAZARD SIGN, FLARES OR FLAG • WINDSHIELD WASHER FLUID
WARM-UP AND CLEAN-OFF 1. IDLE ENGINE - DO NOT RACE ENGINE! 2. CLEAN OFF VEHICLE COMPLETELY! - CLEAN ALL LIGHTS - SCRAPE ALL WINDOWS AND MIRRORS - SWEEP ALL THE SNOW OFF THE VEHICLE Good all around visibility is important!!!!! remember, BEING IN A HURRY WILL RESULT IN ACCIDENTS DOWN THE ROAD!
RISK MANAGEMENT DRIVING DECISIONS • Is my car equipped for the weather? • Can I make this trip later? • What would be the safest route? • Am I prepared for emergencies?
DRIVING TECHNIQUES • Drive at reduced speeds so you can stop quicker. • Give turn signals sooner than usual. This gives other drivers more time to react. • Pump your brakes to warn of your intention to stop. • Maintain at least triple the normal distance from the vehicle ahead. (6 seconds)
Winter Safety Driving The leading cause of death during winter storms is transportation accidents. Many accidents could be avoided if drivers took time to learn and practice these tips for driving safely during snowy and icy conditions. Perhaps the deadliest danger of all is "black ice." Black ice is ice which forms on a roadway, usually due to snow melting and re-freezing. Since it is almost invisible, drivers fail to recognize black ice conditions and may drive at normal speeds-often resulting in very serious accidents. Always be alert to the possibility of black ice when temperatures are near or below freezing. Pavement that looks dry but appears darker in color and dull-looking should alert you to the presence of black ice.
BLACK ICE DANGEROUS BECAUSE YOU CAN’T SEE IT! COMMON AREAS YOU FIND IT: 1. Bridges/Overpasses/Underpasses 2. Shaded areas.
BLACK ICE REACTION • DO NOT PANIC! • MAKE NO SUDDEN CHANGES IN SPEED OR DIRECTION • EASE OFF ACCELERATOR • STEER IN DIRECTION THAT THE REAR OF THE VEHICLE IS SKIDDING
_ _ _ _SKIDS Result from unexpected forces: 1. Black Ice 2. Driving to fast for conditions 3. Sudden steering corrections or braking 4. Sudden accelerations
_ _ _ _ SKIDS(CONTINUED) If your vehicle begins to skid, take the following actions: 1. Front end skids - Release the brake and let the front wheels roll freely to regain traction and steering control. 2. Rear end skids - Take foot off of accelerator and turn wheels in the direction that the rear of the vehicle is skidding, and pump brakes lightly.
FOG FOG WHEN DRIVING IN FOG, USE LOWBEAM HEADLIGHTS, or STOP, GET OFF THE ROADWAY, AND WAIT!!
!!! DANGER !!! CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING Each year 1,500 people are killed in the U.S. by carbon monoxide, approximately 900 of whom die in their homes. More than 10,000 are exposed to levels so dangerous that medical attention is required.
CARBON MONOXIDE Attributes/Effects • Odorless & Colorless • Nausea, Headache, Dizziness • Causes Drowsiness • CAN BE FATAL
CARBON MONOXIDE Prevention 1. Never run engine in an enclosed area 2. Check exhaust (muffler) for leaks
For Safe Winter Driving Know Your Vehicle
BEFORE TRIPS: CHECK • BATTERY • ANTIFREEZE • WIPERS & FLUID • IGNITION SYSTEM • THERMOSTAT • LIGHTS • HAZARD LIGHTS • EXHAUST SYSTEM • HEATER • BRAKES • DEFROSTER • OIL LEVEL
Brake System To make an emergency stop on a slippery road… Regular Brakes Pump the Brake Pedal. Anti-lock Brakes (ABS) Press down and hold. The ABS will pump for you.
Bits on Braking • 1. Brake gently and in an on/off pattern. Power brakes require an especially light touch on the pedal. If you have ABS (automatic braking system) designed to prevent your wheels from locking up when braking, check your owner's manual about stopping under poor traction conditions. As a general rule, continuous pedal pressure will be better than on/off braking. When the ABS engages, you'll hear a rumble from the brakes and the brake pedal will vibrate under your foot. The ABS computer is controlling which wheel is braking in order to prevent a skid. NOTE: Resist the temptation to take your foot off the brake while ABS is engaged; maintain constant pedal pressure. • 2. Decelerate well in advance of a turn or stopping point. Try to avoid using brakes while turning; slow down in advance of the turn and then accelerate very gently while going through it. • 3. When descending a hill, pick your maximum safe speed while at the crest and then stay under that speed throughout the decent with gentle on/off braking. Don't expect to do all your braking at that stop sign at the bottom. • 4. If you are approaching a stop with alternate patches of ice and bare pavement between you and the stop, brake firmly as you cross the bare spot and coast over the ice.
Drive System Rear Wheel Drive Pushes and Front Wheel Drive Pulls The systems may feel a little different, but always steer in the direction of the skid, and make gentle corrections to regain control.
STUCK IN SNOW • CLEAR A PATH • STRAIGHTEN FRONT WHEELS • USE ABRASIVE MATERIALS UNDER WHEELS • GENTLE PRESSURE ON ACCELERATOR • DON’T SPIN WHEELS • “ROCKING THE VEHICLE” - CHECK OWNER’S MANUAL • LAST RESORT …
Just For Starters • 1. Before turning on the ignition, make sure the wipers are not frozen to the glass. (Always stop the wipers with the wiper switch and wait until they go into their "park" position before turning off ignition. This is necessary because your wipers will finish one cycle when you turn on the ignition, even though you turn the wipers before right before turning on the ignition the next morning.) 2. Let your engine warm up while you clear off snow or ice from all window surfaces. Put heater fan on "high", heat on "hottest", and selector on "defrost". Be sure to clear off any snow accumulated on the hood and front fenders. This can make it hard to judge distance. Turn on electric rear window defroster if you have one. (In-glass defrosters improve rearward visibility under all moisture-producing conditions, including summer rain.)
cont: • 3. Check all lights, including headlights, parking lights, tail lights, backup lights, and lane-change signals. Make sure they are free of snow or road grime. Even if you don't wash your car all winter, keep your lights clean. • 4. If visibility is anything less than normal, turn headlights on low beam, even during daylight hours. Although this may not improve your ability to see, it will make it easier for the other guy to see you and to judge your speed and distance. NEVER, NEVER, NEVER use parking lights on the highway for any reason. As the name indicates, they are for PARKING. When used on the highway, they tend to distort the other drivers' perception of your speed and distance, especially if most other cars are using headlights.
Traction Tips 1. If your car will be parked for some time while it is snowing, try to back into the garage or parking space. When it's time to move, pulling out will be easier than backing out. For rear drive cars, the bare spot where the car is standing may provide enough initial traction to get you going. For front drive cars, backing in snow is more difficult than for rear drive cars so plan ahead.
Traction Tips cont: • 2. If you have rear drive, load your passengers from back to front. If you have just one passenger, have him/her sit in the middle of the back seat. You want as much weight as possible over the drive wheels. • 3. If you appear to be stuck in your parking spot, try rocking the car with gentle backward and forward motions. (Never change gears while moving or accelerating.) If you move forward/backward for a limited distance and then stop, reverse your direction in your own tracks and hit it again a little harder. Avoid sitting in one spot and spinning your tires. This only heats up the tires and digs you in deeper. If you have standard differential, without traction control, it will be possible for one wheel to spin while the other is motionless. A burlap bag, grocery bag, or cardboard carton under that spinning wheel may get you going. Carry a bag of cat litter (unused). A little under the tire may provide assistance for a spinning wheel.
Traction Tips cont: • 4. Make all moves slowly and carefully: starting, stopping, turning, speeding up, slowing down. Sudden moves cause trouble when the traction is poor. • 5. If the main traffic lane is very slippery and you're having trouble getting up a hill, try driving slowly with 2 wheels on the edge of the roadway. • 6. Try to avoid going up a hill right behind another car. If it loses traction and starts to slow down, you're licked, too. When approaching a hill, follow the other car at a significant distance and then pick your own pace and maintain it. Inertia is your friend while going up a hill with poor traction.
Traction Tips cont: • 7. If your drive wheels start to spin or slide while going up a hill, ease off on the accelerator slightly and then gently resume speed. • 8. To correct a skid TURN WHEEL IN THE DIRECTION OF THE SKID. If your rear end starts sliding to the right, turn the wheel to the right. If your rear end starts sliding to the left, turn your wheel to the left. Do not apply brakes while in a skid. When your wheels are locked, your car is a toboggan. • 9. When ordering a new car with rear drive, be sure to ask for the "positraction" differential. This option is the next best thing to front drive for traction in snow. It delivers power to the drive wheel with the best traction. When ordering a new car with front drive, be sure to ask for the "traction control".
KEY DRIVING TIPS • ALLOW MORE TIME TO TRAVEL • MAINTAIN MORE SPACE • DRIVE WITH YOUR LIGHTS ON • WEAR SAFETY BELTS • LOOK WELL AHEAD • ANTICIPATE PROBLEMS
SEAT BELTS • Army standards require the use of seat belts both on and off duty and on and off-post. Some Soldiers may have developed the habit of not wearing seat belts while operating or riding in vehicles in the AOR. Convincing Soldiers to use seat belts is the #1 prevention effort and will save more lives than any other prevention initiative.
TRiPS and POV/MC Safety Inspections • Policy states that every Soldier will complete the Travel Risk Planning System (TRiPS) along with a POV / MC Safety Inspection. Prior to any Holiday or 3 or more day Pass and driving over 250 miles. • Ensure that a copy of these documents are maintained in your training folder at unit level.
TASK: Discuss the background, types and effects of moving violations. • CONDITION: In a classroom environment we will discuss the background, types and effects of moving violations. • STANDARDS: To understand Moving violations IAW State and local laws.
Moving ViolationDefinition • A moving violation is any violations of the law committed by the driver of a vehicle while it is in motion.
Background • Moving violations followed the invention of the automobile. • The first traffic ticket in the United States was allegedly given to a New York City cab driver on May 20, 1899, for going at the breakneck speed of 12 miles per hour. • States have reaped untold billions of dollars of revenue from violators.
Background Cont. • Traffic violations can be loosely defined as any acts that violates a state or municipalities traffic laws. • Most laws are local, though the federal government does regulate some traffic aspects, and it can deny federal money in order to coerce states to pass particular traffic laws. • These laws vary by state, city, highway, and region.