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FUSION AND FISSION. THE SUN.

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Presentation Transcript
the sun
THE SUN

Every second, the sun converts 500 million metric tons of hydrogen to helium. Due to the process of fusion, 5 million metric tons of excess material is converted into energy in each second. This means that every year, 157,680,000,000,000 metric tons are converted into energy.

nuclear fusion
Nuclear Fusion
  • Nuclear fusion is the process by which multiple nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus.
  • It is accompanied by the release or absorption of energy depending on the masses of the nuclei involved..
fusion
FUSION

NEUTRON

DEUTERIUM

HELIUM

TRITIUM

http://fusioned.gat.com

nuclear fusion6
Nuclear Fusion
  • Iron and nickel nuclei have the largest binding energies per nucleon of all nuclei and therefore are the most stable.
nuclear fusion7
Nuclear Fusion
  • The fusion of two nuclei lighter than iron or nickel generally releases energy.
  • The fusion of nuclei heavier than them absorbs energy.
slide8

Complete the Reaction

1H element

atomic number (protons)

4Be

1H

2He

6C

2He

1H

1H

6C

2He

4Be

8O

2He

2He

energy needed for fusion
Energy needed for Fusion

The thermal activity of a gas is described by its temperature measurement which is really an indication of its velocity/energy.

Thermal energy is represented by the height that the upper magnet.

The upper ring has a potential energy given by PE = mgh at its drop point which is converted into kinetic energy (KE = 1/2 mv2)

As the magnet falls towards the lower magnet. The two magnets click lightly when the kinetic energy is just greater than the magnetic energy that holds them apart.

Since Kinetic Energy = Potential Energy (ignoring frictional components), the gravitational pull and mass of the upper magnet are constant, then the height needed to overcome the magnetic repelling force is proportional to that magnetic repelling force.

slide10

Energy needed for Fusion

PE =mg x h2-h1

PE = KE = Fxh1

F=force of repulsion

F=PE/h1

Upper Drop

Position

Ring

Magnets

Float Position

Lower

Magnet

Wood Block

h2

h1

fusion changes mass to energy e mc 2
Fusion Changes Mass to EnergyE=mc2

.993 kg Helium

He

H

1kg Hydrogen

cookie fusion
Cookie Fusion
  • Procedure
  • Cut 2 squares of wax paper 10 cm on a side
  • Cut 5 cm wide slice of cookie dough (atom)
  • Find the mass of the atom and record on the table
  • Place the atom one cm away from the edge of a wax paper square
  • Repeat step 2 thru 4 for a second atom
  • Place the atoms about 2 cm from each other
  • Place both atoms on a plate and microwave for 1 minute
  • Remove the “new element” and let cool for 2 minutes
  • Find the mass of the “new element”
  • Complete the table
learning check
Learning Check

What process creates energy in the Sun?

Fusion of hydrogen into helium in the Sun’s core generates the Sun’s energy.

How long ago did fusion generate the energy we now receive as sunlight?

Fusion created the energy we receive today about a million years ago. This is the time it takes for photons and then convection to transport energy through the solar interior to the photosphere. Once sunlight emerges from the photosphere, it takes only about 8 minutes to reach Earth.

nuclear fission
NUCLEAR FISSION

A reaction in which an atomic nucleus of a radioactive element splits by bombardment from an external source, with simultaneous release of large amounts of energy, used for electric power generation

nuclear fission17
Nuclear Fission

Neutron induced in U235

Fission is Exothermic

The sum of the masses of

the resulting nuclei is less

than the original mass (about 0.1% less)

The “missing mass” is converted to energy according to E=mc2

neutrons may
Neutrons may:

1 - Cause another fission by colliding with a U235 nucleus

2 - Be absorbed in other material

3 - Lost in the system

If sufficient neutrons are present, we may achieve achain reaction

  • Creates two smaller nuclides and free neutrons
  • The free neutrons potentially collide with nearby U235 nuclei
  • May cause the nuclide to split as well

Each split (fission) is accompanied by a large quantity ofE-N-E-R-G-Y

nuclear fuel costs
Nuclear Fuel Costs
  • Nuclear Fuel Costs Include
    • Uranium
    • Enrichment
    • Manufacturing
    • Waste Disposal
  • Total Nuclear Fuel Cost is Only About 0.5 cents per kilowatt-hour
    • Uranium accounts for only about 20% of this cost or 0.1 cents per kilowatt-hour
    • Increasing Uranium Cost has Minimal Impact
slide21

Review

Nuclear fission:

A large nucleus splits into several small nuclei when impacted by a neutron, and energy is released in this process

Nuclear fusion:

Several small nuclei fuse together and release energy.

draw a double bubble map of fusion and fission
Draw a Double Bubble Map of Fusion and Fission

fission

fusion

Differences Similarities Differences