Jihočeská univerzita v Českých Budějovicích Zemědělská fakulta Dairy and Beef Nutrition Teacher: Prof. Doc., Ing. Čermák Bohuslav, CSc. Student: Ing. Ciobotaru Oana Česke Budějovice 2012
INTRODUCTION • Ruminant livestock include cattle, sheep, and goats. Ruminants are hoofed mammals that have a unique digestive system that allows them to better use energy from fibrous plant material than other herbivores.
Chapter I Nutrients for Cattle The main components of food are water and dry matter. The dry matter consists of organic material and inorganic material.
Energy Animals require energy for maintenance, growth, work and for the production of milk and wool. Feeds are evaluated in terms of the amount of energy an animal can obtain from them. The digestible energy (DE) is the gross (total) amount of energy in the hay and grain fed an animal less the amount lost in the feces. Energy is usually reported in megacalories (Mcal) per kilogram.
Proteins Proteins are composed of amino acids, which contain carbohydrates, nitrogen and sometimes sulphur. Ten amino acids are essential to monogastrics, whereas ruminants only need a source of nitrogen, or a poor quality protein, from which the microbes in the rumen can then construct the essential amino acids. Protein is absolutely essential for growth, reproduction and maintenance in monogastrics and ruminants. Mature animals require less protein on the basis of percentage of the feed offered than young ones. Excess protein is utilized as an energy source.
Minerals • The major minerals in cattle nutrition are calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, magnesium and potassium. They are required at comparatively high levels described as percent of diet or grams per day.
Vitamins • These organic compounds are required in minute amounts by the body. They are essential to metabolism, and some must be supplied in the feed of ruminants.
ChapterII The cow is our basic production unit and most important employee of the beef enterprise. To get the most out our production unit, let’s review the job expectations and responsibilities the cow has to fulfill if she wants to stick around. Our expectations of our bovine employees are to maintain her bodyweight-body condition, deliver a live calf, start the rebreeding process promptly, get pregnant, maintain her pregnancy, and nurse the calf that is already on her side until weaning. That’s quite a load of tasks for one cow to accomplish.
Feedstuffs • Forages • Energy Concentrates (Grains and By-Product Feeds) • Protein Supplements
Lactation cycle phases with corresponding changesin milk production, milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage,DM intake, and body weight.
BIBLIOGRAPHY • “Feeding the dairy cow” .Chamberlain, A. T.; Wilkinson, J. M. 1996 pp. vi + 241 pp. ISBN 0948-617-322 Record Number 19960403882 • “A herd health approach to dairy cow nutrition and production diseases of the transition cow “F.J. Mulligan, L. O’Gradya, D.A. Riceb, M.L. Dohertya • T a y l o r , G. E. T., M i c h i g a n A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n , Q u a r t e r l y B u l l e t i n 2, 101 (1929). Re ed, O. E. a n d Hu f fma n , C. F. , Mi c h i g a n A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n 105 (1930). • P h i l l i p s , P . H., H a r t , E. B., a n d B o h s t e d t , G., Wi s c o n s i n A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n 123 (1934). • Dairy cattle feeding and management. HENDERSON, H. O; REAVES, P. M. West Virginia Univ., Morganstown, and Virginia Polytech. Inst., Blacksburg.Record Number 19540101857 • Complete diets for cattle and sheep. Owen, J. B. Univ. Coll. of N. Wales, Bangor, UK. 1979 pp. 159pp. ISBN • 0-85236-102-5 Record Number 19810465358. • Pop, I.M., Halga, P., Avarvarei Teona, 2006 – Nutriţia şi alimentaţia animalelor, Vol.1,2,3, Editura TipoMoldova, Iaşi; • Halga, P., Pop, I.M., Teona Avarvarei, Viorica Popa, 2005 – Nutriţie şi alimentaţie animală, Editura Alfa, Iaşi; • Jurubescu V., 1994 – Alimentaţia bovinelor, ovinelor şi caprinelor, INRA Paris • Pop, I.M., 2006 – Aditivi furajeri, Editura TipoMoldova, Iaşi; • Pop, I.M., 2002 – Aditivi furajeri, Editura PIM, Iaşi; • Stoica, I., Liliana Stoica, 2001- Bazele nutriţiei şi alimentaţiei animalelor, Editura Coral Sanivet, Bucureşti